M46 Twin MG Pedestal Mount

Illustration of the M46 pedestal mount for twin water-cooled .50 caliber machine guns. (Source: TM 9-230: Machine Gun Mounts for Boats, War Department Technical Manual, October 1943.)

Figure 3—Twin Cal. .50, Machine Gun, Pedestal Mount M46, with Water-cooled Guns

Figure 3—Twin Cal. .50, Machine Gun, Pedestal Mount M46, with Water-cooled Guns

 

M39 .50 Cal. Pedestal Mount

Illustration of the M39 pedestal mount for the .50 caliber machine gun. (Source: TM 9-230: Machine Gun Mounts for Boats, War Department Technical Manual, October 1943.)

Figure 1—Cal. .50, Machine Gun, Pedestal Mount M39, with Aircraft Machine Gun

Figure 1—Cal. .50, Machine Gun, Pedestal Mount M39, with Aircraft Machine Gun

 

Head Control for Hull Machine Gun

Unique head control for the hull machine gun in the Panzer III. (Source: Preliminary Report No. 5, Pz Kw III, School of Tank Technology, September 1942.)

 

Aircraft Machine Guns

Caliber .30 and .50 Browning aircraft machine guns for aircraft from Index of Aeronautical Equipment with Navy and British Equivalents: Volume 5, Armament, March 1944.

AIRCRAFT MACHINE GUNS

Aircraft machine guns are used offensively or defensively against enemy aircraft or ground objectives, and are fired from fixed, flexible, or turret installations.

The caliber .30 and .50 Browning aircraft machine guns are recoil-operated, belt-fed, and air-cooled. Upon depressing the trigger, the gun operation becomes fully automatic, and it will continue to fire within the limit of the ammunition supply or until the trigger is released. Firing is accomplished manually by depressing the trigger, or electrically by a solenoid which is operated from a gun switch. The recoil of the gun supplies the power necessary to extract ammunition from the belt, feed it into the chamber, cock and fire the gun, eject the empty cartridge case, and move the next round into the feedway. Charging the gun for initial firing, or following stoppages, is performed manually, by retracting the handle of the slide group assembly, or remotely, by operating the control valve of a pneumatic or hydraulic gun charger.

These guns may be fed from the left or right side, and may be convened to either feed by reversing a few minor parts. A disintegrating metallic link belt is normally used to supply ammunition to the guns. The belt separates into individual links upon the removal of the loaded cartridge.

Guns may be mounted in the fuselage or in the wings, and require the use of gun mounts or adapters, depending upon the individual installation. When mounted to fire through the propeller arc, the gun must be equipped with a synchronizer, to prevent damage to the propeller.

Aircraft Machine Guns Armament Ordnance

AIRCRAFT MACHINE GUNS

INSTALLATION TYPES: BROWNING AIRCRAFT MACHINE GUN

CALIBER .30

• FIXED MACHINE GUN
  (Including fixed back plate and operating slide group assembly)

• FLEXIBLE, WITH FIXED BACK PLATE, MACHINE GUN
  (Including fixed back plate and retracting slide group assembly.) Used in turret installations.

• FLEXIBLE MACHINE GUN
  (Including flexible back plate and retracting slide group assembly)

CALIBER .50

• FIXED MACHINE GUN
  (Including fixed back plate and operating slide group assembly)

• FLEXIBLE, WITH FIXED BACK PLATE, MACHINE GUN
  (Including fixed back plate and retracting slide group assembly.) Used in turret installations.

• FLEXIBLE MACHINE GUN
  (Including fixed back plate and operating slide group assembly)

 

Length of Bursts for B-29 Gunners

Recommended length of machine gun length for B-29 gunners. Source: Combat Crew Manual, XX Bomber Command, December 1944.

LENGTH OF BURSTS

There are several factors to consider in arriving at an answer to the question of how long a burst it is practical to fire. The ammunition has a high degree of accuracy. At 600 yards, when fired from an accuracy rifle held in a V-block, it will group in a circle 18″ in diameter. When fired single shot, using an aircraft machine gun on a tripod mount, tests have shown a 20″ circle of fire. In a burst of 10 or 12 on the same mount the group was approximately five feet. When longer bursts were fired, it was observed that the gun soon lost accuracy, even though it remained relatively stationary in the mount. When over fifty rounds were fired, in one burst, the projectiles tumbled in flight and dispersed over a 75 foot area at 600 yards. When the barrel has been overheated, it will be found that it cannot be relied upon for further accuracy even though the lands and grooves measure up well and the barrel, to all appearances, seems good. If the exterior of the barrel has a burned appearance, it should be tested by ordnance before further use. When a barrel becomes over-heated it expands to such an extent that the muzzle velocity decreases several hundred feet per second. This decrease continues as the barrel continues to expand, until a point is reached where tumbling of the projectiles takes place and controlled fire is reduced to a few hundred feet. The accuracy of the fire delivered, therefore, depends not only on how steadily the gun is held, but also on the length of the burst, and the condition of the barrel. If a gunner fires short bursts of three to five rounds, constantly using his sights, he will have a tight group and a high degree of accuracy. This is the most effective method of firing your machine guns.

 

M43 Machine Gun Pedestal Mount

Illustration of the M43 pedestal mount for the water-cooled .50 caliber machine gun. (Source: TM 9-230: Machine Gun Mounts for Boats, War Department Technical Manual, October 1943.)

Figure 2—Cal. .50, Machine Gun, Pedestal Mount M43, with Water-cooled Gun

Figure 2—Cal. .50, Machine Gun, Pedestal Mount M43, with Water-cooled Gun

 

Soviet Infantry Weapons

Soviet Infantry Weapons of WW2:

WW2 Soviet Red Army Infantry Weapons and Guns

BASIC RIFLE
Basic rifle is the Mosin-Nagant Model 1891/1930, which fires a 7.62mm (.30 cal.) bullet. The gun takes a 5-round clip and weighs 9.9 pounds. Bayonet shown is the 4-fluted needle type with screwdriver tip. Modernizations in 1930 were in the front and rear sights. The M1910 carbine and the dragoon and Cossack rifles, both shorter than the 48-in. Mosin-Nagant, have not replaced the basic rifle.

SEMIAUTOMATIC
The Simonov or AVS38 semiautomatic is 7.62mm, weighs 10.8 pounds with magazine and bayonet.. Rate of fire is 30 aimed shots per minute. Its 10-round magazine protrudes below the stock and is loaded from ordinary 5-round clips. The gun carries the short knife-type bayonet and can also be fitted with a telescopic sight.

TWO-MAN ANTI-TANK RIFLE
This early model anti-tank rifle is very long-barreled, has a bipod mount and muzzle-brake. Caliber is about .57 and it is bolt action, single shot and operated by two men. Cartridges are carried in loops inside bags and the cartridge case has a very large diameter.

NEW ANTI-TANK RIFLE
The new anti-tank rifle is shorter and apparently semi-automatic. The bolt of this gun travels under a breech cover instead of coming out into the open when pulled to the rear. It has a more conventional stock than the earlier anti-tank rifle and may be gas-operated.

LIGHT MACHINE GUN
The Degtyarov light machine gun is 7.62mm, weighs but 20.7 pounds with bipod, is gas-operated and drum-fed (49 rounds). It is a basic automatic arm of the Soviet Infantry squad. Lightened to 18 1/2 pounds and fitted with pistol grip and 60-round drum the Degtyarov in the tank version fires 550 rounds per minute. A heavier Degtyarov design machine gun is 12.7mm (.50 cal.), is also gas-operated. It has both two-wheel mount with split trail and shield and an AA mount.

TOMMYGUN
This tommygun, Model PPSH M1941 is like the Finnish Soumi. Used widely by tank crews it is 9mm. The piece weighs 10.1 pounds and has a 72-round drum.

GRENADE
Grenades are both offensive (potato masher type shown above) and defensive (pineapple type). The latter hook into a regulation belt for carrying.

SCOPE
For use with telescopic sights the rifle is fitted with a turned-down bolt handle.

REVOLVER
The Nagant M1895 revolver is 7.62mm and weighs 1.8 pounds which is rather light. Issued to officers and special units.

AIR-COOLED MAXIM
The lighter, air-cooled Maxim Tokarev still retains the shield and also has a tripod with precision traverse and elevation gauges which are absent on the Sokolov mount. The barrel is quickly removable as on our caliber .50 machine gun.

MAXIM HEAVY
The M1910 Maxim heavy water-cooled machine gun has a ponderous (90-pound) shielded-and-wheeled Sokolov mount. Rate of fire is 250-300 rounds per minute. For AA fire the Maxim is provided with concentric ring sights. Quadruple Maxim mounts may be set in trucks, armored trains or dug in at airfields. This fires 1,000 rounds of 7.62mm per minute, one belt per gun. The Maxim heavy is recoil-operated.

Source: Newsmap, U.S. Army Service Forces, Army Information Branch, February 1, 1943.
 

7.92-mm Maxim Light Machine Gun MG 08

The following report on the German Maxim light machine guns was published in Foreign Military Weapons and Equipment, Vol. III, Infantry Weapons, Pamphlet No. 30-7-4, Department of the Army, 1954.

7.92-mm Maxim Light Machine Guns MG 08/15 and 08/18
(MASCHINENGEWEHR 08/15 and 08/18)

Maxim Light Machine Gun MG 08/15

The 08/15 machine gun was standard in the German Army in World War I. It was still in use as a second-line weapon in World War II, and large quantities of reserve stocks were captured by the Soviet Army. Although it lacks the improved characteristics found in later machine guns, the MG 08/15 has certain basic characteristics which still make it an effective weapon. It is a water-cooled weapon fitted with a rifle-type shoulder stock and designed to be carried by one man. However, the water-cooled barrel adds to the weight and required maintenance.

Continue reading 7.92-mm Maxim Light Machine Gun MG 08

German Machine Gun Trick

The following intelligence report on an unusual German remote-controlled machine-gun position encountered by U.S. troops in Normandy was published in the Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 4, December 1944.

GERMAN MACHINE-GUN TRICK

A U.S. staff sergeant, who served as an observer for a mortar section in the Normandy campaign, reports an unusual German method of firing a machine gun by remote control. Although this method has not been reported by other U.S. soldiers, and although no concrete evidence as to its effectiveness can be presented, the idea is noted here for what it may be worth as a sample of the German soldier’s ingenuity.

German WW2 Remote-Controlled Machine-Gun Trick

German Machine-gun Trick. A close-up of the machine gun, with, its pulleys. Riflemen-observers whistle signals to the gunner, to indicate Allied approach via point A. The gunner zeroes knot A, which trains the muzzle on point A. The cord arrangement for firing is not shown here.

The sergeant tells of inspecting a captured German machine-gun emplacement, which had been prepared in the highly novel manner illustrated in the figure. A rope had been attached to the butt end of the gun. This rope ran through pulleys set up on each side of the rear of the gun, so that movement of the rope would aim the gun in any lateral direction. The gun then was zeroed at certain positions in the field of fire, and these positions were marked by knots in the rope. Thus the gunner could aim the gun, and, by moving the rope back and forth, spray an area with bullets from a position out of the line of fire when the gun was attacked. The gun was fired by a trigger-and-cord arrangement not shown in the original field sketches.

The German machine-gun crew consisted of a gunner and two or three riflemen who served as observers and who reported to the gunner the particular point on the which the gun should be trained.

This machine-gun position appears impractical at best, and may be an incorrect report. The Germans however did produce a special periscopic aiming and firing apparatus for the MG34 and MG42 machine guns. U.S. ordnance reported on this device as the “Deckungszielgerät für le. 34 u. 42 Dezetgerät: Undercover Aiming and Firing Apparatus.”
Deckungszielgerät für le. 34 u. 42 Dezetgerät: WWII Undercover Aiming and Firing Apparatus for MG34 and MG42