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Verlinden 88mm Flak/Pak Crew

Verlinden Productions has announced on their Facebook page a new WWII German kit for July:
Item #2769: 88mm Flak/Pak Crew-Ammo-Gear 1:35 Scale. Price is $34.95 online. 88mm gun not included.

#2769: 88mm Flak/Pak Crew-Ammo-Gear 1:35 Scale

#2769: 88mm Flak/Pak Crew-Ammo-Gear 1:35 Scale


Russian Antitank Guns

Russian Antitank Guns of WW2

Our Red Army Ally, War Department Pamphlet No. 21-30, 1945.


Bofors Guns Concealment in Dummy Tent

Bofors Guns Concealment Dummy Tent

Source: Engineer-in-Chief’s Consolidated Intelligence Summary, Nos. 1-17, Headquarters, Australian Military Forces, May 1944.

60mm Mortar Practice Shell

Illustration of 60-mm mortar practice shell from the U.S. WW2 technical manual: TM 9-1901: Artillery Ammunition, War Department Technical Manual, June 1944:

60mm Mortar Blue Practice Shell WW2 U.S.

81. SHELL, PRACTICE, M50A2, W /FUZE, P.D., M52, 60-MM MORTARS, M1 and M2, COMPLETE ROUND (fig. 59), is a practice round provided for the 60-mm mortars by adapting service items for this purpose. Components of the M50A2 Practice Round are the same as are used in the M49A2 Service Round except for the high-explosive shell filler. The M50A2 Projectile has a filler of inert material (plaster of paris and stearic acid) and a black powder pellet (0.05 lb) loaded adjacent to the booster of the M52 Fuze. The M52 Fuze is a superquick fuze and shell is functioned before penetration occurs. The black powder pellet and booster charge provide a spotting charge for observation purposes. The shell is loaded to the same weight as the service round, thereby providing for the same ballistic values.


   With M52
or M52B2 Fuze
  With M52B1
(Plastic) Fuze
Weight of complete round       2.96 lb    2.80 lb
Length of complete round     9.54 in.  9.54 in.
Muzzle velocity     518 ft per sec*  535 ft per sec*
Maximum range (at 45 deg)     1.984 yd*  2,017 yd*
*–For charge 4 (cartridge plus 4 increments).

Japanese Model 88 75-mm AA Gun

Description of the WWII Japanese Model 88 (1928) 75-mm Antiaircraft Gun from Japanese Field Artillery, Special Series No. 25, Military Intelligence Division, U.S. War Department, Washington, D.C., October 15, 1944.

Model 88 (1928) 75-mm AA Gun.

Model 88 (1928) 75-mm AA gun is the standard Japanese mobile antiaircraft artillery weapon. It has been encountered more generally in U.S. campaigns against the Japanese than any other artillery weapon. It has a high velocity which makes it suitable for use against ground targets, especially armor. It has been used both in defense of airfields against ground attack and in a dual-purpose role as an antiaircraft and coast-defense gun. For antitank purposes it has the advantage of all-round traverse and the disadvantage of limited mobility. It thus can be quite effective when fired from ambush against tanks, but it cannot shoot and run.

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Destruction of Artillery Ammunition

Instructions for destruction of artillery ammunition to prevent capture by the enemy — the methods will require imagination, initiative, and ingenuity. Source: TM 9-1901: Artillery Ammunition, U.S. War Department Technical Manual, June 1944.



a. When immediate capture of ammunition is threatened by a turn of events in the combat zone and when the ammunition cannot be evacuated, it will be as completely destroyed or damaged as available time, equipment, materials, and personnel will permit.

b. The destruction of ammunition will be accomplished only on authority delegated by the division or higher commander.

c. The methods used will require imagination, initiative, and ingenuity, and should be the simplest which will accomplish the desired purpose.


a. Ammunition can be destroyed most quickly by detonation or burning.

(1) DETONATION. Unpacked high-explosive rounds, separate-loading high-explosive shell, and high capacity items such as antitank mines, bangalore torpedoes, bursters or caps, packed or unpacked, may be destroyed by placing them in contact in piles and detonating them with a charge of TNT, using with blasting cap and sufficient safety fuse to permit reaching cover at 200 yards. About 1 pound of TNT per 100 pounds of ammunition as packed, should be sufficient,

(2) BURNING. All other types of ammunition such as packed high-explosive rounds and propelling charges, small-arms ammunition, grenades, pyrotechnics, etc., packed or unpacked, can most rapidly be destroyed by burning. The ammunition may be piled in the containers (except small-arms cartridges which should be broken out) with all available inflammable material as wood, rags, brush, and cans or drums of gasoline. The gasoline should be poured over the pile and ignited from cover. Rounds that come through the fire unexploded will be in the nature of duds, that is, in a condition dangerous to handle.


Third Army Antiaircraft Claims

Approved claims for U.S. Third Army antiaircraft units from Antiaircraft Artillery: A Brief History of Operations in Europe, 1 August 1944 to 8 May, 1945, Third United States Army.

ANNEX B: Approved claims for all enemy aircraft destroyed or damaged, 1 August 1944 to 8 May 1945, while units listed were serving with the Third US Army. This tabulation does not include a great many additional aircraft claimed, and earned, while units were detached from Third US Army and serving elsewhere. Units not listed made no claims under the Army.

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155-mm Gun M2

Data pertaining to the 155-mm gun M2, the carriage M1 or M1A1, the 155-mm gun mount M13 (T14), and the limbers M2 and M5. All data from the WWII U.S. War Department Technical Manual TM 9-350: 155-mm Gun M2; Carriage M1 and M1A1, Gun Mount M13; Heavy Carriage Limber M2 and M5; and Firing Platform M1, May 1945.


a. Data pertaining to 155-mm gun M2.


Weight of gun (complete with breech mechanism)     9,595 lb
Weight of tube assembly (barrel)   9,190 lb
Length of tube   277.37 in.
Length of bore   cal. .45
Length of rifling   230.57 in.
Powder pressure (normal pressure with maximum charge in a new gun) lb per square in   40,000
Type of breecblock   Interrupted screw
Weight of breech mechanism   405 lb
Type of firing mechanism   continuous pull percussion hammer


Muzzle velocity (average velocity with a new gun in feet per second):
     Shell AP (Maximum zone charge)   2,745 fps
     Shell HE (Maximum zone charge)   2,800 fps
Range: (Maximum)
     AP Shell   24,075 yd
     HE Shell   25,715 yd
Rate of fire:
     Normal   round 1 (per 2 minutes)

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Loading 37-mm AA Guns on Railroad Cars

Instructions for loading the 37-mm gun and carriage on railroad cars from the WWII technical manual TM 9-235 37-mm AA Gun Materiel, U.S. War Department, January, 1944.


a. General. All loading and blocking instructions as specified herein are minimum, and are in accordance with the Association of American Railroads, “Rules Governing the Loading of Commodities on Open Top Cars,” special supplement, revised, 1, March 1943.

b. Instructions.

(1) INSPECTION. Railroad cars must be inspected to see that they are suitable to carry loads to destination. Floors must be sound and all loose nails or other projections not an integral part of the car should be removed.

(2) RAMPS. Permanent ramps should be used for loading the materiel when available, but when such ramps are not available, improvised ramps may be constructed of rail ties and other available lumber.


(a) Cars loaded in accordance with specifications given herein must not be handled in hump switching.

(b) Cars must not be cut off while in motion and must be coupled carefully, and all unnecessary shocks avoided.

(c) Cars must be placed in yards or sidings so that they will be subjected to as little handling as possible. Separate track or tracks, when available, must be designated at terminals, classifications, or receiving yards, for such cars, and cars must be coupled at all times during such holding and hand brakes set.

(4) PLACARDING. Materiel not moving in combat service must be placarded, “DO NOT HUMP.”

(5) CLEARING LIMITS. The height and width of load must be within the clearance limits of the railroads over which it is to be moved. Army and railroad officials must check all clearances prior to each move.

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Flak: Lessons Learned

“Lessons Learned” by U.S. Eighth Air Force fighters against German flak taken from Light, Intense, and Accurate: U.S. Eighth A.F. Strategic Fighters Versus German Flak in the ETO, Headquarters, 65th Fighter Wing, August 1945. The booklet was the work of Lt. Col. San Souci and Capt. William D. Thurston, assisted by Lt. Col. R. F. Kennedy, Wing A-2.

Flak Lessons Learned U.S. 8th Air Force


In fighting back at light flak, Enemy No. 1 of our fighters in the Eighth Air Force, we all learned a great deal. Operating as we did in East Anglia in England, a tight little area crowded to capacity with strategic air units, we were ideally situated to analyze, discuss and record what we learned over a considerable period of time. Our military communications net was perhaps the finest that ever existed in any combat zone, and the exchange of information among units left little to be desired.

Some of the lessons that grew out of this particular situation are worth setting down in a list, followed in Chapter XII by recommendations based on our experience:

1. Specialization in Fighters is a Myth. Anyone using fighters in a strategic air force might just as well make up his mind in the beginning that before it’s over his pilots will come up against every type of defense the enemy has. It was an error in the early days in the ETO to assume that high-level escort fighters would not be bothered by light flak. Ultimately we had to prepare to meet it, and we should have started sooner than we did.

2. Photo Interpretation is Reliable in Locating Flak. Our own experience as we went along, and investigations on the ground in Germany after the war, both proved that the flak defenses pin-pointed by photo reconnaissance were over 90% correct.

3. Reconnaissance Must be Continuous. It is obvious that frequent photos of every area reached by the strategic air force are absolutely essential in order to keep abreast of the fluid flak situation.

Continue reading Flak: Lessons Learned