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P-47N Fuel System

P-47 Fuel System

Source: Pilot Training Manual for the Thunderbolt P-47N, Headquarters, AAF Manual 51-127-4, Army Air Forces, Washington, D.C., September 1945.


B-24D Oxygen System

Diagram of the B-24D Liberator oxygen system from the B-24D pilot manual.

B-24D Oxygen System

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A-26 Crash Landing Procedure

Instructions for crash landing procedures for the Douglas A-26 Invader from the Pilot Training Manual for the A-26 Invader, Headquarters, AAF, Office of Flying Safety.


Douglas A-26 Invader Crash Landing Procedure


1. Call crew. “Prepare for crash landing.” (Have crew acknowledge.)

2. Switch on emergency IFF radio transmitter.

3. Release parachute by unbuckling.

4. Tighten safety belt and lock shoulder harness.

5. Salvo bombs. Close bomb bay doors.

6. Make a normal approach. Use up to 3/4 flaps. Always make a wheels-up landing.

7. Slide seat back but still keep rudder control. (Place cushion between chest and control column.)

8. Call rear gunner and warn of “final impact.”

9. Have bombardier pull emergency lever to release cockpit hatch when airplane is just off the ground.

10. Mixture controls to IDLE CUT-OFF.

11. Turn battery and master ignition switches to OFF.

12. Tank selector valves to OFF.

13. Exit through upper hatch opening.

Continue reading A-26 Crash Landing Procedure

German 105-mm Howitzer

Three views of the German 105-mm howitzer (10.5 cm leFH 18, leichte FeldHaubitze) from the U.S. War Department technical manual TM E9-325A: German 105-mm Howitzer Materiel, June 1944.

German 105-mm Howitzer and Carriage, Firing Position

German 105-mm Howitzer and Carriage, Firing Position

Continue reading German 105-mm Howitzer

Introduction to the Bazooka

Introduction to the “bazooka” (2.36-inch AT Rocket Launcher M1A1) from the technical manual TM 9-294: 2.36-inch A.T. Rocket Launcher M1A1, War Department Technical Manual, September, 1943.



a. This manual is published for the information and guidance of personnel charged with the operation and maintenance of the 2.36-inch AT Rocket Launcher M1A1. It contains information required by the using arms to identify, use, care, and preserve the materiel and the ammunition used therewith. In addition, it contains information required by ordnance personnel for the maintenance and repair of the materiel.

2. CHARACTERISTICS (figs. 1 and 2).

a. The 2.36-inch AT Rocket Launcher M1A1 is an electrically operated weapon of the open tube type. It is fired from the shoulder in the standing, kneeling, sitting, or prone positions. It is used to launch high-explosive rockets against tanks, armored vehicles, pill boxes, and emplacements. The rockets weigh approximately 3½ pounds and are capable of penetrating heavy armor at angles of impact up to 30 degrees. The weapon can be aimed up to distances of 300 yards. Greater ranges may be obtained by estimating the angle of elevation. The maximum range is 700 yards.

Figure 1 -- 2.36-Inch AT Rocket Launcher M1A1 -- Left Side View

Figure 1 -- 2.36-Inch AT Rocket Launcher M1A1 -- Left Side View

Figure 2 -- 2.36-Inch AT Rocket Launcher M1A1 -- Right Side View

Figure 2 -- 2.36-Inch AT Rocket Launcher M1A1 -- Right Side View

Continue reading Introduction to the Bazooka

M4 Track Tension

Illustration of correct and incorrect track tension on the M4A2 tank from the M4A2 technical manual. The tank crew were instructed to inspect the track tension regularly and tighten the track if it shows noticeable sag.

M4 Sherman Tank Tracks

Track with insufficient tension

Tank Tracks

Track with proper tension

Source: TM 9-731B: Medium Tank M4A2, War Department Technical Manual, January 1943.

Dodge ¾-ton 4×4 Storage and Shipment

Instructions for storage and shipment of the Dodge weapons carrier and variants (WC-51 through WC-60) from TM 9-808: ¾-Ton 4×4 Truck (Dodge), War Department Technical Manual, January 1944.



a. The 3/4-ton truck will usually be shipped uncrated for domestic shipment. For overseas shipment trucks will usually be shipped crated in pairs. Preparation for temporary storage (less than 60 days) will be the same as preparation for domestic shipment, and preparation for indefinite storage (over 60 days) will be the same as the preparation for overseas shipment.

b. Preparation for Domestic Shipment and Temporary Storage.

(1) LUBRICATION. Lubricate the vehicle completely before storage or shipment.

(2) FUEL IN TANKS. It will not be necessary to remove the fuel from the tanks nor to label these tanks under Interstate Commerce Commission Regulations.

(3) WATER IN RADIATOR. Drain the radiator only when there is a possibility of freezing during storage or shipment. If the water is drained from the radiator, tie a conspicuous tag to the steering wheel of each vehicle indicating that the radiator is empty.

(4) BATTERY. Disconnect the battery by removing the positive battery cable. Tape the cable and tie it away from the battery.

(5) UNPAINTED SURFACES. Treat all unpainted and exposed surfaces with rust-preventive before the vehicle is stored or shipped. After cleaning the surface with solvents or a soap, solution, treat all exterior surfaces with a thin film of rust-preventive compound. Apply preventive cold by spraying or brushing. It will harden to a tough thin film. Treat surfaces from which it would be difficult to remove rust-preventives, such as the bore of a gun, with rust-preventive compound, light. Apply this compound by brushing or slushing.

(6) TIRES. For domestic shipment, inflate the tires to about 10 pounds above normal.

(7) INSPECTION. Make systematic inspection just before shipment or storage. Make a list of all missing items or broken items that are not repaired, and attach the list to the steering wheel.

c. Preparation for Overseas Shipment and Indefinite Storage.

Observe all precautions given in paragraph 194b in preparation for overseas shipment and indefinite storage. Many additional precautions must be taken, especially for overseas shipment. (See AR 850-18.)


a. Take the following precautions when the truck is prepared for storage.

b. Engine.

(1) Check the engine oil and replenish if necessary.

(2) Remove the air cleaner from the carburetor.

(3) Start the engine and run it at a fast idle, spraying approximately one pint of lubricating oil preservative (medium) into the carburetor throat. Turn off the ignition switch immediately after the oil has been sprayed into the carburetor.

(4) With the ignition switch off, open the throttle wide and turn the engine over several complete revolutions by means of the starting motor.

(5) Install the air cleaner.

c. Brakes. Release the brakes and block the wheels.

d. Inspections.

(1) Inspect the vehicles weekly for tire leaks or discharged batteries.

(2) Upon removal from storage, repair or replace any items noted on the tag attached to the steering wheel as still needing repair or still missing, and perform a complete monthly maintenance inspection.


a. There are two approved methods of blocking the 3/4-ton trucks on freight cars as described below.

b. Method 1 (fig. 209).

(1) BLOCKS B. Place eight blocks B to the front and to the rear of each front wheel and to the front of each forward rear wheel, and to the back of each rearward rear wheel. Nail the heel of the block to the car floor with five 40-penny nails, and toenail that portion of the block under the tire to the car floor with two 40-penny nails. CAUTION: Nail blocks B in such a position that cleats C will clear face of tires by 1/2 inch.

Dodge Weapons Carrier 3/4-ton 4x4

Figure 209. Method 1 for Blocking ¾-Ton 4x4 Truck (Dodge) on Freight Cars

(2) CLEATS C. Place two cleats C against the outside face of blocks B at each front and rear wheel. Nail the lower cleats to the car floor with three 40-penny nails and the top cleat to the cleats below with three 40-penny nails. Fill the 1/2-inch space between tires and cleats C with burlap or other similar material to prevent chafing of tires.

(3) STRAPPING D. Pass four strands, two wrappings, of No. 8 gage, black annealed wire (D, fig. 209) through the spokes of the wheels and the stake pockets. Tighten the wires enough to remove slack. If a box car is used, apply this strapping in similar fashion and attach it to the floor by the use of blocking or anchor plates. This strapping is not required when gondola cars are used.

c. Method 2 (fig. 210).

(1) BLOCKS F. Place one block F across the front and one across the rear of the front wheels. Place one block F to the front of the forward rear wheels and one block F to the rear of the rearward rear wheels. These blocks must be at least eight inches wider than the over-all width of the vehicle at the car floor.

Vehicle Strapdown Freight Car Rail Transport

Figure 210. Method 2 for Blocking ¾-Ton 4x4 Truck (Dodge) on Freight Cars

(2) CLEATS E. Place sixteen cleats E against blocks F, as shown in figure 210.

(3) CLEATS C. Wrap cleats C with burlap or other similar material to prevent chafing of tires. Place one cleat C against the outside of each front wheel on the top of block F, as shown in figure 210. Nail the cleats to each block F with two 40-penny nails.

(4) STRAPPING D. Pass four strands, two wrappings, of No. 8 gage, black annealed wire (D, fig. 210) through the spokes of the wheels and the stake pockets. Tighten the wires enough to remove slack. If a box car is used, apply this strapping in similar fashion and attach it to the floor by the use of blocking or anchor plates. This strapping is not required when gondola cars are used.


a. The truck will usually be crated for overseas shipment to protect the truck, to reduce cubic measurement, and to facilitate stowage. Usually this crate will be made up as a twin pack; that is, containing two vehicles broken down as much as necessary in order to save cubic displacement. When such crating is necessary, it should be performed in accordance with IOSSC-(a), “Introduction to Ordnance Storage and Shipment Chart, Section (a), Instructions and Specifications for Packaging Ordnance General Supplies.”


a. Shipping of Vehicles, Combat Loaded.

(1) Do not disassemble the vehicle. Protect unpainted surfaces with lubricating oil preservative.

(2) BLOCKING. Whenever possible, use blocking similar to that shown in figures 212 and 213. However, special precautions must be taken to prevent the materiel from moving sideways.

b. Protection During Shipping.

(1) MATERIALS AVAILABLE. Keep a supply of the required cleaning and preserving materials available for servicing while in transit.

(2) DECK LOADS. When the materiel is shipped on deck, cover the vehicle with a closely fitting tarpaulin. Seal all engine openings, such as the carburetor, air intake, exhaust outlet, oil breather outlet, etc., with waterproof tape. Apply this sealing so that it is easily accessible without disassembly in order that the vehicle may be ready for immediate action.

c. Inspections. Make daily inspections for signs of corrosion which should be checked immediately by reapplication of rust-preventives and lubricating oil. Do not allow salt water to dry on unprotected surfaces under any circumstances. If possible, after the materiel has been subjected to salt water flush the materiel with clean, fresh water.


Antiairborne Defense

A guide to defense against airborne troops from Cavalry Mechanized Reconnaissance Squadron, Cavalry Field Manual FM 2-30, U.S. War Department, Washington, DC, March 1943:


The reconnaissance squadron is a highly effective agency in the scheme of antiairborne defense as outlined in FM 100-5. Generally speaking, airborne troops in force will be used either ahead or to the flank of their enemy for the purpose of seizing and holding key terrain or behind it as a vertical envelopment. In either case, the squadron has an active role.

a. The squadron operating ahead of the division will, in all probability, be the nearest element to any point at which an air landing is attempted in the division zone of advance. The points at which such an enemy operation will be profitable should be as well known to friendly commanders as they are to the enemy and should therefore be expected. Long-range air reconnaissance may further reduce the element of surprise. Division G-2 should immediately warn the reconnaissance squadron commander of any airborne movements observed either in preparation or aloft. Being thus alerted, the squadron commander can plan how he will oppose a landing at any probable point in his zone.


(1) Parachutists should be prevented from reaching and opening their weapon containers.

(1) The reconnaissance commander encountering airborne troops in his zone must make a rapid decision based on the stage of the enemy development, relative strength, and the urgency of his primary mission. He may decide to attack, to contain the force until reinforced by the division, or to bypass and report the incident.

Continue reading Antiairborne Defense

Aircraft Fire Fighting

Aircraft fire fighting procedures from Pilots’ Information File, U.S. Army Air Forces, 1944:

Aircraft Fire Fighting



Use all fire extinguishers applicable and follow proper procedure at once.

Prepare for emergency. Warn every man on the airplane to attach his parachute and to move to his proper position for bailout.

Determine whether a landing will be attempted or the airplane abandoned.

If airplane is to be abandoned, climb to a safe altitude, if possible, then give the order to bail out.

Engine Fires

At the first sign of a fire, if conditions permit, use the following procedure on the affected engine:

With built-in carbon dioxide system:
1. Cowling flaps “OPEN”.
2. Shut fuel “OFF”.
3. Feather propeller.
4. Turn ignition “OFF”.
5. Set extinguisher selector valve.
6. Release carbon dioxide charge.
7. Do not start engine again.
8. Land as soon as possible, determine cause of fire, and correct condition before continuing flight.

Without carbon dioxide system:
1. Shut fuel “OFF”.
2. Turn ignition “OFF”.
3. Feather propeller.
4. Cowling flaps “CLOSED”.
5. Land as soon as possible, determine cause of fire, and correct condition before continuing flight.

Fuel Tank and Amphibian Hull Fires

If fuel tanks or hulls are equipped with built-in carbon dioxide system:
1. Locate source of fire.
2. Set extinguisher selector valve.
3. Release carbon dioxide charge.
4. If fire is accessible, use hand equipment.
5. Land as soon as possible.

If not equipped with built-in carbon dioxide system:
1. Locate source of fire.
2. If fire is accessible, use hand extinguishers.
3. If fire is on side of hull attempt to control flame by sideslipping away from fire.
4. Land as soon as possible.

Cabin Fires
1. Close windows and ventilators.
2. Locate source of fire.
3. If electrical, cut power to affected part.
4. If fuel line is leaking, cut flow through line.
5. Use all extinguishers available. (Open windows and ventilators as soon as possible after flames are extinguished.)
6. Land as soon as possible and correct condition before continuing flight.

Wing Fires
1. Turn all switches controlling electrical wing installations “OFF”.
2. Attempt to extinguish flame by sideslipping the airplane away from the fire, when possible.
3. Land as soon as possible and correct the condition before continuing flight.

Drop Tank Fires

Airstream usually will extinguish fires involving all types of externally mounted drop tanks, without damage to wing structure. Drop the tanks only if fire persists. If your plane has a bomb bay type tank, drop immediately.

Flare Fires

If flares in the racks ignite, release the flares at once. Pry them loose if they stick in the racks.

In case of fire, don’t open emergency hatches or bomb bay doors in the air, except for bailout. External fires may be drawn into the cabin. Drafts will cause cabin fires to flare up.

Open emergency hatches just before landing if fire makes a crash landing necessary, to permit escape or rescue without delay.

Aircraft Fire On the Ground

See that a member of the ground or air crew stands by with adequate, portable fire extinguishing equipment while your engines are being started.

Starting an engine is a critical fire moment. Backfiring sometimes ignites excess priming fuel in the induction system. If a fire starts it may spread rapidly.

In case of fire while starting engines:
1. Allow engine to continue running. Fire often is sucked through the engine and extinguished.
2. Signal crew to use portable fire fighting equipment at once.
3. Notify tower to rush crash equipment.
4. If fire persists, shut off the ignition and fuel supply.
5. Use the built-in CO2 system if you have one.


Aircraft Fire Extinguisher


“Fyr Fyter”, hand-type fire extinguishers, having a carbon tetrachloride base, are found in most airplanes. Use this extinguisher primarily for fighting fires in the cockpit or cabin. It is unsuitable for extinguishing fires outside the fuselage during flight.

Aim at the base of the fire, remembering that your supply is limited and must be used effectively. The “Fyr Fyter” extinguisher in your plane has enough fluid to last for about one minute of continuous use. Its effective range is approximately 20 feet.

“CO2“, hand-type fire extinguishen, using carbon dioxide, also are found in large airplanes. Use this extinguisher for fighting fires inside the airplane.

The CO2 extinguisher has an effective range of only 3 feet. The charge will last only 15 to 30 seconds, according to size of the unit. So aim at the base of the fire and move in close, on the upwind side. Then pull the trigger release, directing the CO2 straight at the base of the fire. Move the discharge nozzle slowly across the flame area.

Know the location of all extinguishers, their limitations, and how to use them.

Both of these extinguishers are effective in combating fuel, electrical, and wood or fabric fires. CO2 is rapid, clean, and easy to use. However, because of the small quantity in the cartridge, it might not be final in action.

Built-in CO2 (carbon dioxide) systems are installed in some types of airplanes, so that engines, hulls of amphibians, gasoline tank compartments, or even cargo sections may be flooded with carbon dioxide gas in case of fire. First, set the extinguisher selector valve to direct the CO: charge to the desired location. Then pull the release handle. The operating controls are marked clearly to indicate their method of use.


Stand back, but within effective range, when using the “Fyr Fyter”, carbon tetrachloride extinguisher. Open windows and ventilators after fire is extinguished. The fumes generated are poisonous. See a doctor as soon as you land if you have inhaled excessive amounts of the gas or have swallowed even a small quantity of the liquid.

Don’t touch any portion of the discharge nozzle of the CO2 extinguisher. The extremely cold temperature of the carbon dioxide may cause severe burns.

Be sure that your air and ground crews are instructed in fire fighting procedures and methods of fire prevention.


Ditching a B-17 Flying Fortress at Sea

Emergency procedures for a forced landing at sea from the Pilot’s Manual for Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress:


Ditching B-17 Bomber at Sea

1. As complete evacuation of the airplane should not take over 30 seconds, preflight practice drills should be participated in by all crews who are to make a flight over water, or whose operations are generally over water.

2. A complete and careful inspection of emergency equipment should be made before each long over water flight. Check life rafts, emergency kit bags (provisions), and emergency radio equipment. The kit bags and radio are stored aft of the radio compartment.

3. When it becomes evident that the airplane is to be forced down at sea due to lack of fuel, or that an altitude of at least 1,000 feet cannot be maintained, the pilot gives warning over the interphone. WARNING! This command must, if possible, be given while the fuel supply is still sufficient for 15 minutes of flight. The chances for a successful landing are much greater, if power is used.

4. Each crew member will acknowledge the command over the interphone.

5. The bombardier after acknowledging the command, will jettison bombs, or bomb bay tanks if more than half full, and close the bomb bay doors. If there is not sufficient time to release the bombs and close the bomb bay doors, ascertain that the bombs are “SAFE” and leave the doors closed.

6. The navigator will determine the position and inform both the pilot and the radio operator. He will take with him the instruments necessary to make simple computation while on life rafts.

B-17 Bomber Forced Landing at Sea

7. The radio operator will jettison the hatch cover. Then, when directed by the pilot, he will send an appropriate distress signal and position. After completing this duty, he will bring the emergency radio set into the radio compartment.

8. The side gunners will jettison the side guns as they make very dangerous battering rams. If there are no side gunners, this duty should be given to other crew members before flight.

9. A crew member appointed before flight will take the emergency kit bags to the radio compartment.

10. After completing his individual duties, each member goes to the radio compartment which is the crash station for all but the pilot and copilot.

11. The pilot will direct the copilot to cut the two inboard engines, if the two outboard engines are functioning satisfactorily, and to feather their propellers.

12. Both the pilot and the copilot will strap themselves in their seats. If the side windows are to be used as exits, slide windows open, then close, insuring freedom of operation. Leave them closed until after the impact. CAUTION! Place axe handy in event of jamming.

Pilot Manual B-17 Flying Fortress Bomber: Forced Landing Water

13. Be sure all emergency equipment is in the radio compartment. Throw overboard any equipment that might come loose.

14. Remove cushions from seats for head protection and take crash positions. Do not take a position in the center of the compartment as ball turret upper structure makes this unsafe. Brace head against solid structure, if possible. Do not leave these positions until plane has come to rest as there will probably be more than one shock.

15. All members should have life vests on, parachutes removed, and should have on all extra clothing to be worn on rafts. At night, turn off all bright internal lights and use only the amber lamps.

16. The pilot should attempt to set the airplane down in a trough, which is usually cross wind. The two outboard engines are used for control and to flatten the approach. The landing gear should be up, the flaps lowered medium, and the ignition switches cut a foot or so above the water.

17. The water should be touched at about 90 mph. Come in as level as possible.

18. As soon as the airplane has come to rest the predesignated member will pull the life raft handles.