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Naval 3-Inch Mark 21 Mount

Left and right-side views of the Mark 21 mount for the 3-inch/50 cal. naval gun from Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 16116, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, May 1944.

The 3-inch/50 cal. gun and mount (Mark 21); left-side view.

The 3-inch/50 cal. gun and mount (Mark 21); right-side view.

The 3-inch/50 cal. gun and mount (Mark 21); left-side view.

The 3-inch/50 cal. gun and mount (Mark 21); left-side view.


M1 57mm Anti-tank Gun Kit

Riich.Models has announced a new 1/35th-scale WWII anti-tank gun release: RV 35020: U.S. M1 57mm Anti-tank Gun on M2 carriage (Late Version). The M1 served as the standard towed anti-tank gun of the U.S. infantry divisions and over 10,000 guns were manufactured during WWII.



Mark 24 Naval Gun Mount

Illustration of the Mark 24 3"/50 cal. naval gun mount from: Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 16116, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, May 1944.

3"/50 cal. gun and Mark 24 mount.

3"/50 cal. gun and Mark 24 mount.


40-mm Twin Gun Assembly

40-mm Twin Gun Assembly (Source: Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 16116, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, May 1944.).


5-Inch Naval Gun Turret

Cutaway drawing of the Mark 12 5″/38 caliber U.S. naval gun. (Source: Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 16116, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, May 1944.)


9-mm Walther Pistol M1938

Brief article on the Walther P38 semi-automatic pistol from Foreign Military Weapons and Equipment, Vol. III, Infantry Weapons, Pamphlet No. 30-7-4, Department of the Army, 1954.

9-mm Walther Pistol M1938
(PISTOLE 38 or P-38)

P38 Walther Pistole M1938

This weapon was steadily replacing the Luger (Pistole ’08) as the standard issue, official, German military side-arm on VE-day. It is a recoil-operated, magazine-fed, double-action weapon of excellent design and balance. The double-action feature enables the weapon to be fired by simply squeezing the trigger without manually cocking the hammer. It is one of the few military automatic pistols with this feature. Large numbers of this pistol were produced in Germany during World War II and are still found throughout Europe in considerable numbers.

Salient recognition features are: (1) Double action; (2) no grip safety; (3) the forward portion of the barrel is not covered by the slide mechanism; (4) the magazine catch is on the rear bottom of the hand grip butt; and (5) the thumb safety is on the left side of the receiver.


German Walther P-38 Pistol 9mm Automatic


System of operation   Short recoil, double-action
Caliber   9-mm (cal. .354)
     Unloaded   940 g (2.11 lb)
     Loaded   1.004 kg (2.2 lb)
Length over-all   .215 m (8.3 in)
Length of barrel   .125 m (4.7 in)
Feeding device   8-rd magazine
     Front   Blade, adjustable laterally
     Rear   Open V-notch, fixed
Muzzle velocity   340 m/sec (1,100 fps)
Effective rate of fire   8-16 rounds per minute
Effective range   50 m (55 yd aprx)
Ammunition   9-mm parabellum ball; (British, U.S. 9-mm Parabellum or Luger and Italian M1938 9-mm rounds will also function)


Dragon 1:72 88mm Flak 37

New 1/72nd-scale 88mm Flak 37 announcement from Dragon Models: #60634: 88mm FlaK 37, Eastern Front 1942-43.

88mm FlaK 37 Eastern Front 1942-1943 Dragon Armor

M1895 Mannlicher Rifle

8-mm M1895 Mannlicher Rifle


8-mm M1895 Mannlicher Rifle

This weapon, the most widely used of all the Mannlicher rifles, was the standard Austro-Hungarian rifle of World War I, and huge quantities were surrendered to Italy under provisions of the Peace Treaty. Many small European nations acquired significant numbers of this weapon through purchases from Italy. It was widely used in the Balkan countries in World War II. The Hungarian 8-mm M 35M rifle is a copy of this weapon, but it fires different ammunition. Other weapons similar are the 8-mm Model 1890 rifle (the earlier model) and the 8-mm Model 1895 carbine. Since STEYR of Austria was the chief manufacturer of this rifle, it is often referred to as a “STEYR-MANNLICHER”.

The model 1895 rifle employs the straight-pull bolt-action. It is drawn straight back to unload, pushed straight forward to load. The Mannlicher system of clip feeding is used. The five-round loaded clip is inserted in the top and falls out the bottom of the weapon when empty.

Salient recognition features of this rifle are: (1) The straight-pull bolt; (2) the thumb safety at rear of bolt; (3) the finger grooves in the sides of the stock; (4) the lack of a windage adjustment on the rear sight; (5) the horizontal, rather than turned-down, bolt handle; and (6) the magazine well and trigger guard are of one-piece construction.


Mannlicher Rifle: Austro-Hungarian Rifle of WW1 and WW2


System of operation   Manually operated, bolt action
Caliber   8-mm (cal. .315)
Weight (including sling, bayonet):        
     Unloaded   4.0 kg (8.9 lb)
     Loaded   4.1 kg (9.0 lb)
Length over-all:        
     With bayonet    152 cm (59.5 in)
     W/o bayonet    127 cm (50.0 in)
Length of barrel   76 cm (30.2 in)
Feeding device   5-round clip, integral box
     Front   Blade, barley corn type
     Rear   Upright leaf, V-notch, graduated 600-2,600 m. battle sight set at 500 m
Muzzle velocity   620 m/s (2034 fps)
Effective rate of fire   8-10 rpm
Effective range   400 m (440 yards)
Ammunition   8-mm M1893 rimmed ball, round


Machine Gun Turrets

Introduction to aircraft machine gun turrets from the WWII manual Index of Aeronautical Equipment with Navy and British Equivalents: Volume 5, Armament, March 1944.


The primary function of a machine gun turret is to provide an automatic means for a gunner to track a target and operate the guns. All turrets consist of an enclosure, a turret control system, and means of mounting, sighting, feeding, and firing the guns.

Upper Turret

The locally-controlled turret is a rotatable structure in the form of a ball, dome, or rounded cylinder, in which one or more machine guns are mounted. The guns are sighted, controlled, and fired by a gunner within, above, or below the turret, depending upon its type and location in the airplane.

Turrets are designated according to their installation in the airplane, i.e.: upper turrets (on the upper deck), lower or belly turrets (under the fuselage), tail turrets, and nose turrets.

Upper turrets are non-retractable and have dome-like, transparent enclosures of plexiglas and metal under which the gunner sits or stands. The guns may be rotated through 360 degrees horizontally, through 90 degrees in elevation, or any simultaneous combination of the two movements.

Lower, or belly turrets can be either retractable or non-retractable. They may be spherical, with the gunner seated inside; or hemispherical, with the gunner kneeling inside the airplane above the turret. The enclosures are usually of metal and plexiglas. The guns may be rotated through 360 degrees horizontally, through 90 degrees in depression, or any simultaneous combination of the two movements.

Lower Gun Turret and Ball Turret

Tail turrets are not retractable. The cylindrically-shaped enclosure includes steel armor plate protection, a cover of transparent plexiglas, and, in some installations, flat panes of bullet-proof glass. The gunner is seated completely inside the structure and controls the turret to move the guns through approximately 180 degrees horizontally, 90 degrees upward, and 90 degrees downward.

Continue reading Machine Gun Turrets

Zvezda British 6 pdr Anti-Tank Gun

New 1/35th-scale kit from Zvezda of the British Anti-Tank Gun QF 6-PDR MK-II (Item No. 3518).

Continue reading Zvezda British 6 pdr Anti-Tank Gun