Naval 3-Inch Mark 21 Mount

Left and right-side views of the Mark 21 mount for the 3-inch/50 cal. naval gun from Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 16116, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, May 1944.

The 3-inch/50 cal. gun and mount (Mark 21); left-side view.

The 3-inch/50 cal. gun and mount (Mark 21); right-side view.

The 3-inch/50 cal. gun and mount (Mark 21); left-side view.

The 3-inch/50 cal. gun and mount (Mark 21); left-side view.


Mark 24 Naval Gun Mount

Illustration of the Mark 24 3"/50 cal. naval gun mount from: Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 16116, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, May 1944.

3"/50 cal. gun and Mark 24 mount.

3"/50 cal. gun and Mark 24 mount.


Naval Twin 5-Inch Turret

Details of the twin mount 5-inch/38 cal. naval gun from Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 16116, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, May 1944.)

Enclosed twin mount and handling room; 5-inch/38 cal. gun.

Enclosed twin mount and handling room; 5-inch/38 cal. gun.

Twin mount plan view; 5-inch/38 cal. gun.

Twin mount plan view; 5-inch/38 cal. gun.


40mm Twin Mount and Crew

40mm twin mount and operating crew, from: Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 16116, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, May 1944.

40mm twin mount and operating crew.

40mm twin mount and operating crew.


Naval Aviators

Naval Aviators

The naval aviators who are striking out at the enemy today were the cadets of yesterday. They are always willing to learn and are quick to profit from the mistakes of others. (Naval Aviation News, August 1944)


Your Battleship and Her Requirements

Your Battleship and Her Requirements: (Newsmap, May 1944)

U.S. Navy WW2 Battleship Poster

Continue reading Your Battleship and Her Requirements

Tidewater Tillie Tames Two

Two attacks of B-24 “Tidewater Tillie” from the 2nd Antisubmarine Squadron on German U-boats from Monthly Intelligence Report, No. 3, Army Air Forces, Antisubmarine Command, March 1943:


“Tidewater Tillie” is the B-24 in which 1st Lt. W.L. Sanford and his crew of the 2nd Antisubmarine Squadron have recently executed two attacks on enemy submarines which resulted in one probably sunk and one known sunk.

B-24 Liberator Tidewater Tillie Antisubmarine WarfareThe first attack, illustrated by the accompanying diagram, took place on February 10th about 800 miles west of St. Nazaire while the squadron was operating out of Great Britain. While patrolling at 300 feet at the base of a solid overcast, the left waist gunner sighted a U-boat on the surface 10 degrees off the port bow about four miles away. A radar contact had been obtained in the same position a few seconds before, but due to sea conditions it had not been verified until the visual sighting was made.

When first observed, the conning tower was clearly seen, but as the aircraft approached it disappeared and about forty feet of the stern was seen projecting out of the water at an angle of 20 degrees. As the aircraft attacked no churning was visible from the screws of the apparently motionless U-boat. Six Mark XI Torpex depth bombs spaced for 19 feet were released from 200 feet at 200 mph. The entire stick overshot; the first depth bomb was observed to explode about 30 feet to starboard of the submarine as the tail gunner fired 75 rounds at the exposed part of the hull.

As the pilot circled to port, the U-boat settled back on an even keel with the conning tower visible and both decks awash. A second attack on the still motionless submarine was made with three more depth bombs. The tail gunner fired another 75 rounds and saw the first depth bomb explode on the port side, while a second exploded to starboard. The U-boat appeared to lift slightly, lurching with the force of the explosion, and then remained motionless on the surface.

While Lt. Sanford circled to make a third run the sea was seen to be churned just astern of the U-boat, and the conning tower settled beneath the surface without way sixteen seconds before the last three depth bombs were released. The detonations occurred about 200 feet ahead of the patch of disturbed water, but no plume resulted. Instead, a dome shaped bubble appeared followed by a large circular slick of brown fluid which was described by the crew as definitely not DC residue. Nothing further was seen and thirty minutes later the B-24 set course for base.

Photographs were taken but are too thin to be of any value. When first sighted the U-boat apparently was attempting to dive at too steep an angle without sufficient way. This gave the pilot an opportunity to maneuver for two additional attacks which resulted, according to official Admiralty assessment, in “Probably Sunk”.

On March 22, while operating out of a North African base, Lt. Sanford, again in Tidewater Tillie, made another attack in the vicinity of the Canary Islands which resulted in the complete destruction of the U-boat.

The B-24, camouflaged Mediterranean Blue on its upper surfaces and cloud white underneath, was patrolling at 1200 feet in and out of the base of the cloud cover when the co-pilot sighted a broad wake about five miles on the starboard beam. The pilot continued on his course into the next cloud, then made a 90 degree turn, immediately losing altitude. As the plane emerged from the cloud, the wake, still about five miles distant, was observed to be caused by a U-boat proceeding fully surfaced on course 180°. Lt. Sanford decided to continue his run straight ahead and attack from the beam with the sun behind him rather than maneuver for a quartering or following attack. With the aircraft at 200 feet and making about 200 mph, the bombardier released four MK XXIX depth bombs spaced at 60 feet, allowing about 1000 feet range on the water.

After the drop the plane continued on its course for eleven seconds to allow the Miller mirror camera to function. The bombs were observed to straddle the U-boat, hitting the water as follows:
     #1 – short 130 feet, directly abeam the submarine;
     #2 – short 70 feet, directly abeam the aft portion of the conning tower;
     #3 – short 10 feet, directly abeam the aft portion of the conning tower;
     #4 – long 50 feet.

The explosions enveloped the after portion of the U-boat which continued on its course for eleven seconds, then began to settle by the stern. The entire bow section from the conning tower forward was projecting out of the water and in about one minute slipped beneath the surface. Several survivors were observed clinging to debris which was strewn about the area, and a large oil slick developed. Half an hour later, as the plane was about to depart, a mass of brown, paint-like substance came up in the middle of the slick. This may have been rusty bilge oil discharged when the U-boat began to break up on the bottom.

The accompanying photographs were taken with the Miller mirror camera and with the personal camera of the radar operator, who took them upon his own initiative. The submarine was described as painted white with no markings. It had a streamlined conning tower and a very sharp bow. Three men were observed in the conning tower as the plane passed over. One of them tried to man the anti-aircraft gun.

U-Boat U-524, B-24 Depth Charge Attack

DC explosion. Bow and conning tower of U/B visible. U/B is attempting to crash dive. Large bow wave and spray probably caused by sudden sideward movement of hull.

German Submarine U-524 Sunk Canary Islands

U-boat on the surface after the plane passed over. Spray caused by DC's hitting water. Small splash of MG burst visible forward of conning tower.

U-Boat Submarine Crew After Depth Charge

Seven survivors clinging to a cylinder like object and two others (arrow) swimming towards it.

The attack was evidently a complete surprise and was achieved by a combination of effective camouflage, clever use of cloud cover, attacking out of the sun, and accurate bombing. Both of Lt. Sanford’s attacks attest to the skill and efficiency of this crew and to the value of B-24 aircraft in anti-submarine operations. The success of these actions was due in part to the long range of the aircraft and its great bomb load capacity. More aircraft like Tidewater Tillie, capable of delivering attacks 1000 miles off shore with bomb loads of 3000 lbs. or more, promise increasing success against the U-boat.


Speaking of Antennas…

Detailed breakdown of the communication and radar antennas mounted on the USS Yorktown from the Feb. 1945 issue of C.I.C. (Combat Information Center) published by the U.S. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.

Speaking of Antennas…

USS Yorktown, one of the Fleet’s mighty flattops, goes forth to track the Japs with this forest of radar antennas. Air and Surface search, GCI for night interceptions, fire control, beacons, interrogators, intercept receivers (not shown)—the array is complete, the ship ready to detect the enemy despite all his desperate efforts to evade, deceive, or jam.

USS Yorktown Aircraft Carrier Flattop Radar Antennas


Russian Battleship Sevastopol

Details and illustrations from a U.S. Naval Intelligence 1943 report on the Russian battleship Sevastopol:

Sevastopol Battleship Russia WW2

Russia WW2 Battleship BB Sevastopol - Silhouette Diagram and Dimensions

Russian Battleship Sevastopol - WW2 Russian Fleet



Date laid down: 1909.
Date commissioned: 1915.
Normal displacement: 23,000 tons.
Length overall: 594 feet.
Beam: 87 feet.
Maximum draft: 27 feet.
Type of machinery: Parson’s Turbines.
Horsepower: 42,000.
Number of Propellors: 4.
Type of boilers: Yarrow.
Number of boilers: 25.
Full speed: 18 knots.
Cruising speed: 16 knots with a cruising radius of 4,000 miles.
Aircraft normally carried: 2.
Launching device: 1 catapult.
Fire control: director control.
Number of searchlights: 6.


Armor: Belt 8 3/4 inches amidships; 5″ and 2″ at ends; 3″ to 4″ internal belt.
Turrets: 12″ – 10″; 8″ barbettes.
Decks: 3″.
FC towers: 10″ forward.

The armor belt is about 15 feet wide, five feet of it being below the water line, of uniform thickness; there is a second 3″ or 4″ internal belt from 11 feet inboard above the protective deck extending between it and the barbettes. The space between the main and internal belts is divided up into water tight compartments.


12 — 12″ 52 caliber guns in triple turrets with a maximum elevation of 25°, a muzzle velocity of 2644 feet per second, and a maximum range of 30,000 yards.
10 — 4.7″ 50 caliber guns in casemates with a muzzle velocity of 2624 feet per second.
6 — 4.1″ antiaircraft guns.
3 — 3.9″ antiaircraft guns.
4 — 3″ antiaircraft guns.

The port plates above each gun are in the form of a hinged flap, allowing each 12″ gun to elevate to 25° maximum.

Arcs of fire: end triple 12″ turrets is 310° central turrets, 130° on each beam; the after 4.7″ gun, 90° the other 4.7″ guns, 85°.

Main battery guns in number 2 and number 3 turrets have been replaced by guns of a “higher caliber”, reports indicate.

Number of torpedo tubes: 4 18″ submerged.


It is not believed that the modernization of this unit included an increased compartmentation of the hull as in the case of the other two units of this class. There is no evidence of external blisters having been fitted. The first stack was trunked aft, and a tripod foremast with FC top, and catapult have been fitted. Otherwise, the reconstruction does not appear to have been as extensive as on her sister ships.

This unit is reported to be most unhealthy, unsanitary and badly ventilated.

The Sevastopol proceeded from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea in 1930 in company with the overage light cruiser Profintern. Her general condition, at that time was reported to be unfit and the official explanation of her remaining in the Black Sea was that she could not face the return voyage.


The main deck level centerline disposition of the four large triple turrets is unique among existing capital ships, readily distinguishable from the air.

At long range on the surface, this vessel bears a faint resemblance to the Japanese battleship of the FUSO Class.

Russian Battleship BB Sevastopol: Main turret gun armament Russian Battleship BB Sevastopol: Stern Antiaircraft Battery Russian Battleship BB Sevastopol: Three main battery triple turrets

Arrangement of Guns on Naval Vessels

Illustation of the typical arrangement of guns on a WWII battleship, cruiser, and destroyer from Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, NAVPERS 16116, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, May, 1944:

Arrangement of guns on a battleship

Arrangement of guns on a battleship

Arrangement of guns on a cruiser

Arrangement of guns on a cruiser

Arrangement of guns on a destroyer

Arrangement of guns on a destroyer