[Webmaster Note: The following division information is reproduced
from the public domain publication, The Army Almanac: A Book of
Facts Concerning the Army of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office,
1950. Portions of the information may be out of date. Only minor formatting changes and
typographical corrections have been made.]
World War I
Activated: August 1917.
Overseas: June 1918.
Major Operations: St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne.
Casualties: Total - 7,549 (KIA - 1,091; WIA - 6,458).
Commanders: Maj. Gen. Henry T. Allen (25 August 1917),
Brig. Gen. Joseph A. Gaston (23 November 1917),
Brig. Gen. W. H. Johnston (27 December 1917),
Maj. Gen. Henry T. Allen (1 March 1918),
Brig. Gen. Joseph P. O'Neil (24 November 1918),
Maj. Gen. Charles H. Martin (30 December 1918).
Returned to U.S. and inactivated: June 1919.
World War II
Activated: 25 March 1942.
Overseas: 23 March 1944.
Distinguished Unit Citations: 5.
Campaigns: Normandy, Northern France, Ardennes-Alsace, Rhineland, Central Europe.
Awards: MH-4; DSC-54; DSM-4; SS-1,418; LM-19; DFC-4; SM-55; BSM-6,140; AM-121.
Commanders: Maj. Gen. Henry Terrell, Jr. (March 1942-January 1944),
Brig. Gen. Jay W. MacKelvie (January-July 1944),
Maj. Gen. Eugene M. Landrum (July-August 1944),
Maj. Gen. Raymond S. McLain (August-October 1944),
Maj. Gen. James A. Van Fleet (October 1944-February 1945),
Maj. Gen. Lowell W. Rooks (February-March 1945),
Maj. Gen. Herbert L. Earnest (March-November 1945).
Returned to U.S.: 16 December 1945.
Inactivated: 27 December 1945.
The 90th Infantry Division landed in England, 5 April 1944, and trained
from 10 April to 4 June. First elements of the Division saw action
on D-day, 6 June, on Utah Beach, Normandy, the remainder
entering combat, 10 June, cutting across the Merderet River to take
Pont l'Abbe in heavy fighting. After defensive action along the Douve, the
Division attacked to clear the Foret de Mont Castre, clearing it by 11 July, in
spite of fierce resistance. An attack on the island of Seves failing, 23 July,
the 90th bypassed it and took Periers, 27 July. On 12 August, the Division
drove across the Sarthe River, north and east of Le Mans, and took part in
the closing of the Falaise Gap, taking Chambois, 19 August. It then raced
across France, through Verdun, 6 September, to participate in the siege of
Metz, 14 September-19 November, capturing Maizieres les Metz, 30 October,
and crossing the Moselle at Koenigsmacker, 9 November. On. 6 December 1944,
the Division pushed across the Saar and established a bridgehead north of
Saarlautern, 618 December, but with the outbreak of the Von Rundstedt drive,
withdrew to the west bank on 19 December, and went on the defensive until
5 January 1945, when it shifted to the scene of the Ardennes struggle. It
drove across the Our, near Oberhausen, 29 January, to establish and expand
a bridgehead. In February, the Division smashed through Siegfried fortifications
to the Prum River. After a short rest, the 90th continued across the Moselle to
take Mainz, 22 March, and crossed the Rhine, the Main, and the Werra in rapid
succession. Pursuit continued to the Czech border, 18 April 1945, and into
the Sudeten hills. The Division was en route to Prague when the war in
Assignments in the ETO
5 March 1944: Third Army. // 23 March 1944: Third Army, but attached to First Army. //
27 March 1944: VII Corps. // 19 June 1944: VIII Corps. // 30 July 1944: Third
Army, but attached to First Army. // 1 August 1944: XV Corps, Third Army, 12th
Army Group. // 17 August 1944: Third Army, 12th Army Group, but attached to
V Corps, First Army. // 25 August 1944: XV Corps, Third Army, 12th Army
Group. // 26 August 1944: XX Corps. // 6 January 1945: III Corps. //
26 January 1945: VIII Corps. // 12 March 1945: XII Corps.
Nickname: Tough 'Ombres; formerly called the Texas-Oklahoma Division.
Shoulder patch: A khaki-colored square on which is superimposed a red letter "T", the
lower part of which bisects the letter "O", also in red.
Publications: 90th; by unit members; Army & Navy Publishing Co., Baton
Rouge, La.; 1947. The Tough "Ombre"; quarterly newspaper, published
by the 90th Division Association.
Tough 'Ombres! The Story of the
90th Infantry Division; Stars and Stripes, Paris, 1944; 32 pp.
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