One of the primary aims of the Intelligence Bulletin is to provide enlisted men and
junior officers with all the useful information possible about the individual enemy
soldier they expect to face in battle. A considerable amount of this type of information has
appeared in previous issues of the bulletin, and reference should be made to it because very
little repetition is published in this periodical. Vol. I, No. 12 of
the Intelligence Bulletin contains an index which should prove helpful in making
In both oral and written instructions, the Japanese have placed great emphasis on such subjects
as "military discipline," "improving morale," "reforms in the service," "improvement of
fighting power," "dying for the Emperor," and "brotherly teamwork" between individuals,
units, and the various arms and services.
However, the state of morale and combat qualities desired by Japanese leaders are frequently
missing. This is borne out by our observers in the field, by documentary evidence, and
by prisoners of war.
The good characteristics of the individual Japanese soldier are summed up as follows:
a. Physically, he is hardy and strong.
b. In prepared defenses, he usually is tenacious unto death (this was not true in some
instances in the fighting on Attu).
c. He is bold and courageous, particularly when his comrades are around and when he has
terrain and firepower advantages.
d. Because of good training, he is generally "at home" in the jungle.
e. His discipline (especially fire discipline) is usually good.
The poor characteristics may be summed up as follows:
a. He is usually subject to panic when confronted by the unexpected.
b. He is not always steadfast in battle.
c. Usually his marksmanship is poor.
d. Under certain conditions, he is unimaginative; he is a poor thinker when thrown "on his own."
Observers agree that there is nothing "super" about the Japanese soldier, and that he has
the usual human frailties.
3. ENEMY INSTRUCTIONS
Various Japanese instructions on morale and aggressiveness in combat are given below. They
were obtained from enemy sources.
Form an unshakable group unity through harmonious relations. "The advantages of heaven and
earth are of no avail against the unity of men" is an ancient but true maxim. Always
maintain a calm spirit in battle, and forgive others generously. By forming around our
commanding officers a unity like that of a blood brotherhood, we can overcome all difficulties.
Manifest your morality on the battlefield. Morality is might in battle. Deal with your
neighboring unit in a spirit of friendship and respect. Respond immediately to the needs
of others in an emergency. When another unit lacks some items, share what you have with
them—even the most precious rations and ammunition are not for your use alone. You
should know that kindness to others will always be repaid.
Read the training manual thoroughly, observe strictly the battle regulations, and never do
things your own way. The training manual is a guide which must be strictly followed regardless
of the enemy or terrain; there is no need to change the manual.
On the battlefield there are some who are prone to neglect the regulations, or thoughtlessly
fail to keep them in mind.
When assigned a duty, first of all consult the manual and familiarize yourself with the
instructions regarding your specific assignment. Then, after the battle, go over your
instructions step by step and determine what mistakes you made. You must realize that the
training manual is the guide and mainstay of the unit.
It is the enemy's [United Nations] nature to be weak to the strong and strong to the
weak; therefore, if we show any passiveness, hesitancy, or weakness, they will increasingly
take advantage of it. Each unit and each individual, realizing this fact, must boldly
and resolutely attack and crush the enemy's morale and put them in a shrinking, retreating
frame of mind.
4. ARMY-NAVY RELATIONS
The following translation of a Japanese document indicates that in at least some areas
there is an outmoded, shortsighted relationship between the Army and Navy.
For the sake of future relations, the Army units will give proper respect to the fact that
the Navy has shown power in every area. In addition to recognizing and respecting the
hardships the Navy has experienced, the Army units must try to keep trivial problems—such
as those involving billeting or supplies—from causing any feeling of estrangement
between the two services. Indeed, the fundamental basis of ultimate victory in the coming
operation is dependent upon the close spiritual unity of both the Army and the Navy.
Also, the mutual exchange of salutes between Army and Navy personnel must be strictly enforced.