The German deliberate field fortifications  illustrated
in this section are typical of many that U.S. troops are now
encountering in Italy. An article in a previous issue of the
Intelligence Bulletin, "A Prepared Defensive Position
in Italy" (Vol. II, No. 7, pp. 57-60), discussed in some detail a
number of German field fortifications of the types illustrated here,
and may profitably be read in connection with the following material.
A German machine-gun position, which has received a direct hit by
hostile artillery, is shown in figure 15. Coils of wire had been used
as revetment, and to hold the camouflage in place. This position had a narrow
mine and trip-wire belt to the front. The entrance to the position was
from the rear (see fig. 16). The zig-zagged approach trench was shaded by
low trees. It will be noted that, in addition to providing thick overhead
cover, the Germans used an abundance of natural material in the camouflage scheme.
|Figure 15.—German Machine-gun Position (front view).|
|Figure 16.—German Machine-gun Position (rear entrance).|
The entrance to a German dugout used for sleeping
quarters is illustrated in figure 17. Tree shade was
used to supplement the natural material with which the
revetted dugout has been camouflaged. The debris scattered
in the foreground is of course not characteristic
of a German position in actual use. The enemy takes pains to hide
discarded material of all kinds, even including
such minor items as stray pieces of paper, so as not to attract
hostile air observation. The Germans are well aware that a single
gleaming bit of steel or a fragment of paper may reflect enough light to
attract the attention of an air observer.
When the Germans prepare dugouts in hillsides and cliffs, they take
every advantage of opportunities to secure ample overhead cover. A
two-room dugout used as living quarters by the enemy is illustrated in
figure 18. This dugout has more than 10 feet of overhead cover.
|Figure 17.—Entrance to German Dugout in Rolling Terrain.|
|Figure 18.—Entrance to German Two-room Dugout in a Hillside.|
The large dugouts illustrated in figures 19 and 20
were constructed and occupied by the enemy in the vicinity
of Le Cave.  The Germans use dugouts of this
type for many different purposes—as living quarters,
vehicle shelters, command posts, and ammunition and
supply dumps. The dugout shown in figure 20 was used
as living quarters.
Experience has shown that the Germans are very
likely to mine field fortifications of the types illustrated
here before abandoning them.
|Figure 19.—German Dugout in the Side of a Cliff (used for storing supplies).|
|Figure 20.—Another German Dugout in the Side of a Cliff (used as living quarters).|
1 "A hasty field fortification is one made quickly, when under fire or
threat of immediate attack. A deliberate field fortification is made more
slowly and carefully, when not in contact with the enemy." — TM 20-205.
2 The equipment shown in figure 19 is our own.