TM-E 30-451 Handbook on German Military Forces

[DISCLAIMER: The following text is taken from the U.S. War Department Technical Manual, TM-E 30-451: Handbook on German Military Forces published in March 1945. — Figures and illustrations are not reproduced, see source details. — As with all wartime intelligence information, data may be incomplete or inaccurate. No attempt has been made to update or correct the text. — Any views or opinions expressed do not necessarily represent those of the website.]



5. Antipersonnel Mines

a. S-MINE 35. (1) Description. This anti-personnel mine may be operated by direct pressure on an igniter in the head, or by a pull on one or more trip wires attached to pull igniters. The mine may also be fired electrically. The pressure igniter, S.Mi.Z.35, functions under a weight of about 15 pounds. When set with trip wires, pull igniters ZZ.35 or Zu.ZZ.35 are used, with a two- or three-way adapter screwed on the mine in place of the transit cap. The mine is cylindrical with a close-fitting cover. For transport three are carried in a wooden box or watertight pressed metal case. In the space between the outer case and inner cylinder of each mine there are approximately 360 steel balls, mild steel rods in short lengths, or small pieces of scrap steel. These constitute the loading of the mine. The base plate has a recess to hold the propellent charge. The central steel tube is threaded externally to take the adapters or igniters, and internally to take any standard German igniter or electric detonator for deliberate firing. At its lower end, the tube passes through the base plate and is secured by a union. Inside the main steel tube is another short tube, containing a delay element (about 4 1/2 seconds). There have been cases where the delay holder has been replaced by a detonator, causing the mine to explode without jumping. Equally spaced in the base plate are holes leading into the bottom of the three detonator tubes and containing short-delay elements. When the igniter functions, the delay pellet provides a short delay before igniting the propellent charge in the base of the mine. The burning of this charge projects the main elements of the mine into the air. Simultaneously, the powder delays in the bottom of the detonator tubes are ignited and explode the mine some 3 to 5 feet above the ground.

(2) Characteristics.

Height (less igniter)   . . . . .   5 inches.
Diameter   . . . . .   4 inches.
Weight   . . . . .   9 pounds.
Weight of filling:
    Poured TNT   . . . . .   14 ounces.
    Powdered TNT   . . . . .   8 ounces.

(3) Performance. The delay between firing the igniter and the ejection of the mine varies according to age and condition of the mine. However, tests have shown an average of 3.9 seconds. The delay between the ejection of the mine and the detonation also varies; tests have shown that it averages 0.6 second.

(4) Neutralization. Anti-handling devices first are neutralized. Then uncover the mine, identify, and neutralize the igniters.

(5) Disarming. After neutralizing, cut the trip wires of the pull igniters. Unscrew the igniters and unscrew the plugs from the three holes in the cover and remove the detonator by turning the mine over.

b. S-MINE 44. (1) Description. The S-Mine 44 is an antipersonnel mine of the bounding type similar to the S-mine 35. The igniter well is toward one side of the cover plate, and the height at which the mine explodes is controlled by an internal pull-igniter arrangement. The igniter is the combination push-and-pull type, and its neutralization demands extreme care. The employment of this mine is the same as for the S-mine 35. The lethal range is 22 yards, and the casualty range 110 yards.

(2) Operation. The igniter initiates the 4 1/2-second delay pellet firing the propellant, which throws the mine upward. When the coiled wire is fully extended it pulls the release pin from the igniter, exploding the mine.

c. Schü-Mine 42. (1) Description. The Schü-mine 42 with the Z.Z. 42 igniter is an easy, handy obstacle to employ against infantry, cavalry and light vehicles. In small-scale obstacles, it conveniently can be substituted for the S-mine 35. In almost all minefields it can be used in conjunction with Tellermines. The mine consists of a casing of impregnated plywood, or hardened compressed fibrous cardboard, painted dull black; one 1928 pattern demolition charge weighing 200 grams or 7 ounces; and one Z.Z.42 pull igniter with No. 8 detonator. The total weight is 1.1 pounds. The igniter is prepared for use by unscrewing the safety cap and inserting the detonator (open end to open end). The pin is held in position by the spring loaded striker.

(2) Lifting and Neutralizing. After locating the mine, search for and neutralize any anti-handling devices, then lift the lid without exerting any pressure. See whether the pin of the igniter is still seated firmly in the striker. If this is the case the mine may be lifted, after determining that there are no anti-lifting devices. Mines on which pressure has been exerted and the pin disturbed from its normal position should be destroyed in place.

d. WOODEN ANTIPERSONNEL MINE 43(N). (1) Description. In its operation this mine, with an impregnated wood body, is very similar to the standard German Schü-mine 42 The lid, hinged to the back of the body, is fitted with a metal operating flange at the front. This flange, in the armed position, rests on two wooden dowels and is secured by a safety pin. The center of the flange is slotted to clear the striker of the igniter, but two small tongues rest in the loop of the igniter pin. The igniter Z.Z.42, is screwed into a zinc socket. The main filling is cast TNT, with pressed TNT around the detonator socket.

(2) Characteristics.

Length   . . . . .   8 1/4 inches.
Width   . . . . .   6 1/8 inches.
Height open   . . . . .   4 1/4 inches.
Height closed   . . . . .   3 3/4 inches.
Weight of filling   . . . . .   3 pounds 5 ounces.

(3) Operation. The mine is fired by pressure on the lid. The metal flange will first shear the dowels and then push out pin, thus releasing the striker. The operating load is approximately 75 pounds.

(4) To Neutralize. The same as for the Schü-mine 42.

e. WOODEN MINE 42(N). (1) Description. The body is made of impregnated wood, with a zinc socket in the top to take a detonator and igniter. Across the top is a shaped block of wood drilled to allow the igniter to be screwed down on the top of the body. The igniter is the standand D.Z.35. The main filling is cast TNT with pressed TNT primer.

(2) Characteristic.

Length   . . . . .   6 1/4 inches.
Width   . . . . .   6 1/4 inches.
Over-all height   . . . . .   5 1/8 inches.
Height of body   . . . . .   2 3/4 inches.
Weight of filling   . . . . .   3 pounds 5 ounces.

(3) Operation. The mine is fired by pressure on top of the D.Z.35 igniter, or by pressure on a cover board over the head of the igniter. Without the cover board, the mine is practically insensible to blast, but the probability of operating the mine is reduced considerably. The functioning load of the igniter fitted to this mine is 75 pounds. It appears that the igniter is being manufactured with a weaker spring for use in this mine, since the pressure required to function a standard D.Z.35 is 130 to 165 pounds.

f. ANTIPERSONNEL PRESSURE MINE (ITALIAN). (1) Description. This mine consists of a rectangular bakelite box, with a wedge-shaped, hinged lid, containing a TNT charge held in place by a projection and surrounded on the remaining three sides by deeply grooved fragmentation plates. The igniter mechanism consists of a metal tube which contains a spring-loaded striker, fitted with an actuating pin and a cocking ring. The outer end of the striker tube is secured against the wall of the box by a flange. The striker assembly slips into the side of the mine, in a recess cut out to receive it. A corresponding slot in the lid enables the mine to be completely closed when the igniter is not cocked.

(2) Characteristics.

Length of box   . . . . .   5.35 inches.
Width of box   . . . . .   2.56 inches.
Depth of box   . . . . .   1.5 inches.
Length of charge   . . . . .   2.6 inches.
Width of charge   . . . . .   1.97 inches.
Depth of charge   . . . . .   1.18 inches.
Weight of charge   . . . . .   5 1/4 ounces.

(3) Method of arming. To arm the mine the igniter is cocked by pulling out the ring and inserting the actuating pin. The detonator is then inserted in the striker tube and secured by locking the ring. The whole assembly is inserted in the box, the detonator fitting into a recess in the explosive charge. Finally, the lid is gently closed until it rests on the actuating pin.

(4) Operation. A slight pressure on the lid will cause it to push out the pin and release the striker.

(5) To Neutralize. Avoid all pressure on the lid of the mine. Search for and neutralize any anti-handling devices. Lift the lid clear of the actuating pin. Insert a wire or nail in the safety-pin hole and lift out the striker assembly. Unscrew the locking ring and remove the detonator.

g. ANTIPERSONNEL GLASS MINE 43. (1) Description. This antipersonnel mine is made almost entirely of glass. It is armed with the chemical igniter or with the Hebelzünder. The bottom of the glass container is recessed to hold a Sprengkorper 28. On top of the mine rests a glass shear plate, and, on top of that, a thick glass pressure plate.

(2) Operation. A pressure of 20 to 25 pounds breaks the thin shear plate and applies pressure on the lever of the Hebelzünder, thus firing the igniter and exploding the mine.

(3) To Neutralize. If the mine is fitted with a Hebelzünder, remove the two glass plates, insert safety pin, and unscrew the igniter. Then remove the detonator. If it is fitted with a chemical igniter, unscrew the igniter by gripping it as low as possible. Do not grip the corrugated portion which crushes easily.

h. GERMAN ANTIPERSONNEL "POT MINE". (1) Description. A crush igniter is screwed into the top of the cylindrical body of this mine by means of an adapter. The pressed steel body contains an explosive filling of approximately 4 ounces of powdered picric acid.

(2) Operation. A moderate pressure on the top of the igniter explodes the mine.

(3) To Neutralize. Unscrew the igniter, grasping it as low as possible. If the detonator does not come out with the igniter, remove it by turning the mine upside down. If it does not then drop out, unscrew the adapter and remove the detonator. The total weight of the mine is 12 1/2 ounces.

i. MODIFIED Schü-Mine. (1) Description. This modified Schü-Mine may be used with the Z.Z.35 igniter. The large lid has a sloping front through which the igniter plunger head protrudes.

(2) Operation. Pressure on the lid causes the sloping front to push on the actuating pin. This pulls out the plunger of the igniter, causing it to fire. A hole is bored in the lid directly above the safety pin of the igniter. A cord attached to the ring of the safety pin is used to draw the pin out through the hole to arm the mine.


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