Tag Archive for 'sight'

40 cm Base Range Finder

40 cm Base Range Finder - WWII, Japanese

This range finder is a superimposed image vertical base instrument designed for use with machine gun and mortar fire. It consists of two major assemblies: the elbow, and the diaspirometer unit and head. The elbow housing is of seamless aluminum, 4 3/4 inches in length. It contains the eye and field lens, an amici prism, a reticle, a penta prism, and the objective lens. The brass diaspirometer unit contains two wedges with connecting gears that govern the aluminum range drum; the extension tube made of seamless aluminum which maintains the base length of the instrument; and the cast aluminum head which houses a penta prism and a weak correction wedge.

The instrument is used in conjunction with a mount and tripod. Because of the short base length, this range finder is not accurate at distant ranges.

SPECIFICATIONS

Power           4 diameters
Field of view (upper field) 11°
      (lower field)
Base length 40 cm
Measuring limits 30 to 1,500 meters

Japanese: p. 179 (March 1, 1945)

Rbl. F. Flak: Artillery Sights

Rbl. F. Flak: Artillery SightsThe Rbl. Flak is used with heavy antiaircraft guns for indirect fire against ground targets and for reciprocal laying. A modified type is designed for use with the predictor.

When mounted in their respective sockets with the azimuth scales set to zero, the line of sight of the panoramic telescope on the predictor is 180° from that of the predictor telescope. The reason for the eyepiece of the gun sight being 90° from the axis of the gun is for convenience as the operator can stand at the right side of the gun and look into the sight at right angles to the axis of the gun. This sight is 9.3 inches in height.

German: p. 185 (August 1, 1945)

Rbl. F. 40: Artillery Sights

Rundblickfernrohr 40 (Rbl. F. 40): Artillery Sights The Rundblickfernrohr 40 is believed to have been designed for use with the 7.5 cm L. G. 40 or the 10.5 cm L. G. 42. A carrying case and two night lighting devices employed with the instrument were also recovered.

This is a panoramic artillery sight, consisting of an upright section approximately five inches long, supporting an objective head which has a full 360° traverse, and an eye piece approximately four inches long set at an angle to the base. The eye piece traverses approximately 200°, permitting the operator to use the sight from different positions. A knob graduated in mils and numbered on each ten mils is located near the center of the upright section and traverses the objective head. The lower section of the objective head is graduated in hundred mils, the even hundreds being numbered. By pressing a small lever near the adjusting knob, free traverse of the head for quick spotting is possible.

An adjustment for elevation is controlled by a knob on top of the objective head which is graduated in hundredths and numbered on each tenth mil graduation.

An unusual feature in this sight is that the adjusting knobs are click mounted to enable adjustments to be made at night without light.

Two night lighting devices are provided with the sight. One mounts on the left side of the eye piece and illuminates the reticle with a red light which is regulated by an aperture in the attachment. The other is worn by the operator for reading graduations on the sight and has an aperture selection for either clear or red light. It is held in place on the forehead of the operator by an elastic strap.

Weight of the sight is approximately 2 1/2 pounds.

German: p. 185 (August 1, 1945)

Aushilfsrichtmittel 38: Auxiliary Quadrant Sight 38

Aushilfsrichtmittel 38: Auxiliary Quadrant Sight 38This quadrant sight is called a “substitute aiming device” by the Germans. It will fit into the sight mount found on the 7.62 cm Pak 36 (r), the 5 cm Pak 38, and the 7.5 cm Pak 40. The device has apparently been designed as a cheap instrument for indirect laying and may be used with any weapon having a suitable adapter.

The elevating worm wheel housing fits into the adapter bracket and is retained by the elevation worm wheel. The telescope bracket, which is made of cast aluminum, is fastened to the elevation worm wheel by holding screws. The cross-level vial and longitudinal level vial are part of the telescope bracket assembly.

The cross leveling mechanism consists of a worm meshed with a worm wheel segment cut on the adapter bracket. Turning the cross leveling knob causes the telescope bracket and elevation worm wheel assembly to be tilted in relation to the adapter bracket. The azimuth mechanism consists of a worm and worm wheel provided with a rather unique anti-backlash arrangement.

Both the elevation and azimuth scales are divided into increments of 100 mils, and each is supplemented with a micrometer for 1 mil settings. The elevation scale is graduated from 0 to 1300 mils. There is a simple elbow telescope with a reticle design consisting of a large inverted “V” and two vertical lines such as is found in the German panoramic telescopes.

SPECIFICATIONS

Power of telescope         3 diameters
Field of view of telescope
Overall height of instrument 8 1/8 ins.
Overall width of instrument 3 1/4 ins.
Complete weight of instrument 3 lbs., 12 ozs.

German: p. 184 (June 1, 1945)

Rundblickfernrohr 32 (Rbl. F. 32): Panoramic Telescope 32

Rundblickfernrohr 32 (Rbl. F. 32): Panoramic Telescope 32

Rundblickfernrohr 32 (Rbl. F. 32): Panoramic Telescope 32This panoramic telescope is used on all standard field equipment. It is a 4-power, fixed-focus type with a field of view of 10 degrees. The line of sight may be raised or lowered by rotation of the angle of site knob. The angle of site scale is graduated from 100 mils to 500 mils (300 mils in normal). The angle of site micrometer is graduated in mils from 0 to 100 mils. The azimuth scales on the vertical barrel of the telescope are graduated in 100-mil intervals; the upper scale, 0 to 64, is fixed in relation to the rotating head. The lower has two semi-circular scales numbered 0 to 32 and can be rotated independently of the rotating head. A knurled portion permits adjustment. The azimuth micrometer includes two scales graduated in mils from 0 to 100 mils. The outer scale can be rotated independently of the azimuth worm. Evidently the fixed azimuth scale and micrometer are used for initial laying of the piece and the second scale and micrometer are then zeroed and used to measure base deflection. A throw-out lever is provided for rapid setting in azimuth. A locking lever locks the azimuth micrometer in any setting. The reticle pattern is shown above.

The existence of Panoramic Telescopes 36 and 37 has been confirmed. They are believed to be very similar to the Rbl. F. 32.

SPECIFICATIONS

Power           4X
Field of view 10°
Weight 5 lbs.

German: p. 183 (June 1, 1945)

Mortar Sight

German Mortar SightThis instrument is designed to be used for laying the German 81 mm Mortar in azimuth and elevation. It embodies means for obtaining right or left lateral deflection, elevation or depression, and a collimator sight for sighting on an aiming point.

The elevation scale is graduated from 0 to 16, representing 0 to 1600 mils. The lateral deflection scale is graduated from 0 to 64. The collimator sight consists of a reticle having horizontal and vertical translucent slits located at the focal length of a single eye lens. The grooves on the top and side of the collimator are used as an open sight.

German: p. 182 (June 1, 1945)

Rundblickfernrohr 16 (Rbl. F. 16) and Rundblickfernrohr 16/18 (Rbl. F. 16/18): Panoramic Telescopes 16 and 16/18

Rundblickfernrohr 16 (Rbl. F. 16) and Rundblickfernrohr 16/18 (Rbl. F. 16/18): Panoramic Telescopes 16 and 16/18The Panoramic Telescope Rbl. F. 16, which has been replaced by the Rbl. F. 32 and 36, is still used on the 7.5 cm l. I. G. 18. It is a 4-power, fixed-focus type with a cross level and longitudinal level for checking the alignment when the telescope and bracket are secure to the mount. Since the levels are not readily visible in this position, a mirror is provided on the telescope. The elevation scale and micrometer of the head resembles those of the standard telescope, Rbl. F. 32. The azimuth scale is graduated in 100-mil intervals and numbered from 0 to 64. The azimuth micrometer scale is graduated in units of one mil. The throwout and locking mechanism is the same as that of the usual type of panoramic telescope.

The Model 16/18, shown herewith, is very similar to the 16.

German: p. 182 (June 1, 1945)

Sight Mounts for Self-Propelled Artillery: On-Carriage Fire Control

Sight Mounts for Self-Propelled Artillery: On-Carriage Fire Control

RANGE SCALES: In the above sight mounts there are four scales engraved about the periphery of a vertical range drum. The first scale, used for the Pzgr. 40, is graduated from -300 to 1400 meters; the second for the Spr. is graduated from 100 to 3300 meters, and the third for the Pzgr. 39, is graduated from 200 to 2400 meters. The fourth scale on the drum is a micrometer for the elevation scale located immediately to the right and above the telescope bracket. The elevation scale is graduated in units of 100 mils from 0 to 500.

MOUNTS: The telescope mount for the 7.5 cm Stu. K. 40 is attached to a bracket to the left of the weapon and is connected by a linkage bar so that elevation of the weapon is relayed to the telescope mount. The mount does not automatically compensate for trunnion cant. The telescope used with mounts of this type is of periscopic design and has a removable head. Quadrant elevation is obtained by placing the range drum index in agreement with the proper scale and depressing the telescope mount through the super-elevation angle necessary for the range and then elevating the gun until the apex of the triangle on the telescope reticle is superimposed on the target. There is no angle of site mechanism on the telescope mount, nor is there a longitudinal level vial or index arm to indicate when the gun has been moved through an angle equal to the original movement of the telescope mount. Deflection is introduced by operating the knurled knob at the top-right of the instrument. The deflection scale is graduated in increments of one mil from 0 to 20 on each side of zero.

 Sight Mounts for Self-Propelled Artillery: On-Carriage Fire Control

MOUNTS: The telescope mounts for these two guns are of the same general design, the only differences being in the ballistic cam and markings on the range drum. They are of the rocking bar type and have a range drum graduated for the various types of ammunition used in the weapons. A three power, straight tube telescope is used as the sighting component. For indirect fire, a panoramic telescope, the Aushilfsrichmittel 38 can be fitted.

Sight Mounts for Self-Propelled Artillery: On-Carriage Fire Control

Sight Mount for 10.5 cm (Stu. H. 42) on Pz. Kpfw. III chassis.

RANGE SCALES: There are three scales engraved above the range drum: the top scale is the elevation micrometer for the elevation scale which is graduated from 0 to 300 mils; the next, a range scale, used with the Spr. F. H. Gr., is graduated from 100 to 3300 meters; and the third scale, for the 10.5 cm Gr. 39 HL/A, HL 18, is graduated from 400 to 1500 meters.

MOUNT: The telescope mount for the 10.5 cm Stu. H. 42 is basically the same as the telescope mount for the 7.5 cm Stu. K. 40. The principles of operation are identical.

Sight Mount for 15 cm s. F. H. 13 on Lorraine chassis.

RANGE DRUM: The range drum is quite broad, but there are only two scales on it. The first is a range scale graduated from 100 to 8150 meters. The inner scale is engraved from 0 to 800 mils in 2 mil steps. An elevation scale graduated in units of 100 mils is engraved on a plate fastened to the left trunnion bearing. This scale in conjunction with a pointer actuated by the gun trunnion indicates the angle of elevation imparted to the gun.

MOUNT: The telescope mount for the 15 cm s. F. H. is not an azimuth compensating type. A panoramic telescope bracket is attached to a rack gear and is moved through vertical angles by operation of the knurled knob in the center of the range drum. Angle of site is introduced by turning a wing nut immediately below the telescope bracket. The angle of site scale is engraved about a spiral groove cut into a plate; the index is fitted with a lug that fits in the groove and raises up or down as the scale is turned. Operation of the angle of site mechanism when the range mechanism is locked causes the panoramic telescope to be tilted through an angle equal and opposite to the angle of site. The mount is cross-leveled by turning the wing nut below and forward of the range drum. There is no level vial to indicate a horizontal plane.

German: p. 179, 180, 181

Sight Mounts for Antitank Guns: On-Carriage Fire Control

7.5 cm Pak 41
Sight Mount for 7.5/5.5 cm A.T. Gun: 7.5 cm Pak 41
Sight Mount for 7.5/5.5 cm A.T. Gun

RANGE SCALES: There are five scales engraved about the periphery of the range drum. The first is an elevation scale graduated from 0 to 80 mils. The other four are range scales, numbered from 0 to III and graduated from 0 to 4200, 3800, 3400, and 3200 meters respectively. The range scale on the sector is graduated for ranges from 0 to 1500 meters.

TELESCOPE MOUNT: The telescope mount for the 7.5/5.5 is of simple construction. There is a range drum with its axis parallel to the axis of the telescope and a range scale inscribed on an arc that is located on the right side of the telescope mount. A deflection mechanism is located below the range setting handle.

8.8 cm Pak 43/41
Sight Mount for 8.8 cm A.T. Gun: 8.8 cm Pak 43/41
Sight Mount for 8.8 cm A.T. Gun

RANGE DRUM GRADUATION: The range drum has three scales engraved about its periphery. These scales, from left to right are: an elevation scale in steps of 2 mils from 0 to 800; a range scale marked for 8.8 cm Sp. Gr. L/4.7 with limits of 0 to 5500 meters; and a range scale marked 8.8 cm Sp. Gr. 39H1 with limits of 0 to 3000 meters.

TELESCOPE MOUNTS: There are two telescope mounts mounted side by side on the left side of the weapon. The first telescope mount is of the rocking bar type and is designed primarily for anti-tank use. There is no deflection mechanism apparent on the available model. The range drum is graduated from 0 to 4000 meters. The second telescope mount is of the same general design as that used with the 7.5 cm, 10.5 cm and 15 cm howitzers. Both its use and operation are also the same.

German: p. 178

Sight Mounts for Howitzers: On-Carriage Fire Control

MOUNTS: The telescope mounts of all three howitzers are of the same basic design. All are of the azimuth compensating type and automatically compensate for trunnion cant when cross-levelled. The angle of site mechanism has a scale graduated from 100 to 500 mils with 300 mils representing normal.

OPERATION: Range or super-elevation is introduced by turning the large handwheel below the bracket for the panoramic telescope. Operation of this knob causes the range drum to be rotated past the index and the index arm to be moved through an angle equal to super-elevation.

Angle of site is introduced by two operations. The first operation is to offset the angle of site level vial an amount equal and opposite to the angle of site. This is done by turning the small knob between the super-elevation handwheel and panoramic telescope bracket. The second operation is to rotate the telescope mount by means of the knurled knob beneath the super-elevation handwheel until the angle of site level is again on a horizontal plane. This second step moves the index arm an additional amount and positions it in an angle equal to quadrant elevation.

The second index arm which is actuated by the gun is brought into agreement with the first index arm by elevating the gun. The gun is then laid for quadrant elevation.

It is necessary to operate the angle of site mechanism on the panoramic telescope to bring the line of sight back on its original plane.

7.5 cm le. F. K. 18
Sight Mount for 7.5 cm Howitzer: 7.5 cm le. F. K. 18
Sight Mount for 7.5 cm Howitzer

RANGE DRUM GRADUATION: The range drum above has two scales: an elevation mil scale numbered from 0 to 800, divided into two mil units, and a range scale graduated in hectometers and numbered from 1 to 15.

10.5 cm le. F. H. 18
Sight Mount for 10.5 cm Howitzer: 10.5 cm le. F. H. 18
Sight Mount for 10.5 cm Howitzer

RANGE DRUM GRADUATION: The mil scale on the range drum for the above instrument is graduated in the same manner as for the 7.5 cm howitzer. The range scale is graduated for zone 5; the scale is divided into 50 meter units from 100 to 9150 meters.

15 cm s. I. G. 33
Sight Mount for 15 cm Howitzer: 15 cm s. I. G. 33
Sight Mount for 15 cm Howitzer

RANGE DRUM GRADUATION: In addition to the 0 to 800 mil scale on the above instrument there is a second mil scale, filled with red, placed to the right of the 0-800 scale. This second scale is graduated in 2 mil steps from 800 to 1330 mils. The range scale is preceded by the Roman Numeral I and is divided in increments of 25 meters from 25 to 1475 meters.

German: p. 177