Tag Archive for 'nebelwerfer'

15 cm Wurfgranat 41: 15 cm Rocket Projectile

15 cm Wurfgranat 41: 15 cm Rocket Projectile

This rocket is fired from the German 6-tube Nebelwerfer 41. It resembles an elongated shell with a bulbous ballistic cap. The propellant is contained in the forward part of the projectile and the filling in the rear behind the ring which houses the jets. The propellant powder burns from both ends, giving faster and more even burning. The nozzles are arranged around a projecting annular jet unit about two-thirds of the distance from the nose. The jets are set at an angle to give the projectile rotation in flight, thereby eliminating the use of fins.

A complete round of this rocket projectile is composed of the following components (refer to photograph above): (i) pressed metal ballistic cap, which is screwed onto the projectile; (j) a motor tube; (d) an aluminum disk containing a black powder igniter charge; (a) a pressed metal spacer upon which the sticks of powder rest; (e) seven sticks of uniperforated stick powder; (b) a cellulose igniter tube containing black powder; (c) a cast-iron trap, which is placed over the powder at the rear end of the motor tube; (f) a black powder igniter charge, which is placed over the cast-iron trap; (h) a nozzle assembly, which is screwed to the motor tube; (g) an electric primer, which is inserted in any of the 26 nozzle holes; (1) a pressed iron spacer which fits into the base of the nozzle assembly and provides an air void between the nozzle assembly and the TNT bursting charge; (h) a bursting charge of TNT or a chemical filler contained in a fiber container; (m) a machined steel bursting-charge container; (o) a booster adapter, which screws into the bursting-charge case; (n) a base percussion fuze, which screws into the booster adapter. This fuze is similar to most German base percussion fuzes and arms by centrifugal force.


There are three known types of these projectiles in existence, namely:
A. High Explosive (15 cm Wgr. 41 Spr.)—weight 70 lb.; length 36.6 ins.; maximum diameter 6.2 ins.
B. C. W. (15 cm Wgr. 41 Grünring)—content chemical
C. Smoke (15 cm Wgr. 41 Nb)—weight 79 lb.; weight of propellant 14 lb.

German: p. 356

15 cm Nebelwerfer 41: Rocket Projector

15 cm Nebelwerfer 41: Rocket Projector

This 15 cm Nebelwerfer, formerly known as the Nebelwerfer d, is a six-barreled, breech-loading weapon firing gas, smoke and high-explosive projectiles. The four-foot barrels are not rifled, but have within them three straight guide rails about 1/3 inch deep. The projectile rotates in flight, however, due to the set of the gas jets. There is no breech mechanism, but each barrel has a kind of spring-operated latch to retain the ammunition in position after loading.

The rocket type projectiles are fired electrically by remote control at the rate of one ripple of six rounds in 90 seconds. They are always discharged from the projector in the following barrel order: 1, 4, 6, 2, 3, 5. This is a fixed firing order calculated to prevent the projector from being overturned by blast.

Due to extremely great dispersion, targets of limited area are not engaged.

The carriage is two-wheeled and has a split trail. Fire is directed by forward observers, telescopic observers, and surveying on targets. Each battery has an observer and a fire control officer.


Caliber         150 mm (5.9 ins.)
Length of barrels 51 ins.
Rate of fire 6 rds. per 90 secs.
     45° 7,723 yds.
     30° 7,018 yds.
     6 1/2° 2,710 yds.
Ammunition H.E. Shell, Smoke Shell, C.W. Shell
Weight 1,195 lb.
Traverse 30°
Elevation 44°
Velocity         1,120 f/s

German: p. 352

21 cm Nebelwerfer 42: Rocket Projector

21 cm Nebelwerfer 42: Rocket Projector

The 21 cm Nebelwerfer consists of a five-barrel assembly and a mounting. The barrels, which are disposed equally about a central channel, are 4 feet, 3 1/2 inches long, have an internal diameter of 9 1/4 inches, and are fitted at the breech end with 3/8 inch angle-iron guides, giving a clear diameter of 8 1/2 inches. Starting with the top barrel, they are numbered 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, probably indicating the order in which they are to be fired. Three spring levers at the base of each barrel prevent the projectile from sliding to the rear. The barrel assembly is strengthened and retained by two steel plates which are fitted around the circumference of the assembly at the breech end and half way between the breech and the muzzle respectively.

A junction box situated at the top of the barrel assembly suggests an electrical firing system similar to that of the 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41. The sight had been removed from the captured weapon, but instructions inside the lid of the sight box indicate that ranges of from 500 to 2,000 meters can be obtained. This, however, is not the extreme range of the weapon.

The mounting is a two-wheeled, pneumatic-tired type with a split trail at the rear and an adjustable leg at the front. The latter is raised when the weapon is being towed, and lowered to give stability when firing.

The Nebelwerfer 42 fires the 21 cm Wgr. 42 Spr. mit Hbgr. Z. 35K.

There appears to be a six-barrel version of the 21 cm Nebelwerfer 42 in addition to the one described above. However, the five-barrel type is believed to afford better balance and greater stability.


Caliber             210 mm (8.27 ins.)
Length of barrels 4 ft., 3 1/2 ins.
     45° 9,734 yds.
     30° 8,538 yds.
Ammunition 21 cm Wgr. 42 Spr. mit Hbgr. Z. 35K

German: p. 351

10 cm Nebelwerfer 40: Smoke Mortar

10 cm Nebelwerfer 40: Smoke Mortar

This weapon is designed for either smoke, chemical, or high explosive ammunition.

The smooth-bored tube of monobloc construction is independent of the breech and breech block. When the piece is loaded, both breech and breech block remain stationary, and the back end of the tube moves outward in a vertical direction in grooves cut into the inside of the legs of the breech block. During this operation, the tube pivots about its trunnions located midway between the muzzle and breech ends. There is no spring tension in the breech mechanism so that its movement is entirely manual. The piece is fired by percussion, a spring-driven firing pin being located in the breech block. The firing lever is located just below the breech operating lever.

There are two recoil cylinders, one located on either side of the tube. The cylinders are anchored to the ends of the frame, and the pistons attached to the sides of the breech. The counterrecoil system is located above the tube. Its cylinder is attached to the frame, and the piston to the yoke. Apparently both the recoil and the counterrecoil system is hydropneumatic.

The weapon is fired from the base plate (missing in photo) and wheels. In order to traverse the piece, it is pivoted about a ball and socket joint in the base plate by means of an axle traversing mechanism of ordinary design. Elevation is controlled by two parallel arcs which travel on pinions geared to and rotated by the elevating handwheel. Both traversing and elevating handwheels are located on the left side, as is also the sight bracket.


Caliber       105 mm (4.1 in.)
Weight (traveling position)
Weight (firing position)1,730 lb.
Length (traveling position)
Length (firing position)
Length of barrel(16 cals.) 66 ins.
Height (traveling position)
Height (firing position)
Width (overall)
Width of trail spread
Length of bore|
No. of grooves|
Width of grooves|  Smooth bore
Depth of grooves|
Width of lands|
Muzzle velocity426-1,380 f/s**
Max. range (horizontal)6,810 yds.**
Min. range (horizontal)1,668 yds.
Max. range (vertical)
Rate of fire8-10 rds./min.
Length of recoil
AmmunitionH.E.; Smoke; Chemical*
Wt. of projectileH.E.—20.6 lbs.
 Smoke—21.9 lbs.

*No chemical ammunition has ever been captured, although it is believed that the gun is designed for that type of shell.
**Not verified.

German: p. 110.2

10 cm Nebelwerfer 35: Smoke Mortar

German 10 cm Nebelwerfer: Smoke Mortar

The 10 cm Nebelwerfer, standard smoke and chemical mortar in use by the German Army, has also been used, to some extent, by airborne troops. It is serviced by five men and transported on a two-wheeled handcart.

Although the standard ammunition for the weapon is a 16-pound smoke shell designated Wurfgranate 35, a 19-lb. high explosive shell, Wurfgranate 40 is also used.

The mortar, which is merely a heavier and larger model of the German 8 cm mortar, consists of a barrel, bipod, and baseplate constructed on the usual mortar lines. The traversing gear, however, is unusual in that the traversing screw is housed in a sleeve which is supported by the two ends of a box-shaped yoke secured to the top of the elevating screw.


Caliber        105 mm (4.1 ins.)
Weight in action228 lb.
Weight of barrel72 lb.
Weight of bipod73 lb.
Weight of baseplate83 lb.
Method of operationMuzzle loaded; percussion fired
Maximum range3,300 yds.*
Rate of fire12-15 rds./min.
AmmunitionH.E. and Smoke
Weight of shell16 lb. (Wurfgranate 35) Smoke
  19 lb. (Wurfgranate 40) H.E.
Transport2-wheeled handcart

*Not verified.

German: p. 110.1

30 cm Nebelwerfer 42: Rocket Projector

30 cm Nebelwerfer 42: Rocket ProjectorThis rocket projector very closely resembles the 28/32 cm Nebelwerfer 41. The individual projectors are of similar construction, each one being shaped to the contours of the standard 30 cm rocket ammunition. The rear portion, however, is considerably larger than that of the 28/32 cm projector to accommodate the larger propelling chamber of the 30 cm rocket. As a result of the heavier charge, this rocket achieves a range of 4,976 yards.

Both traversing and elevating mechanisms are identical with those of the 28/32 cm piece. Total traverse is 30 degrees, and elevation is 45 degrees. The firing mechanism is electric with a contact box located at the right side of the piece.

A sight bracket is located at the rear of the framework.

There is a small spade under the frame in the rear, but no other evidence of supports.

The ammunition for this projector is described on page 354.1.

German: p. 350 (May 1, 1945)

28/32 cm schweres Wurfgerät 40 and 41: Transportable Rocket Projectors

28/32 cm schweres Wurfgerät 40 and 41: Transportable Rocket Projectors These two rocket projectors, or ramps, differ from each other only in construction details and in the material used. The Schweres Wurfgerät 40 is made of wood and weighs 115 pounds; the 41 model is of metal, weighing 243 pounds. Each is designed to carry four crates of the 32 cm incendiary rocket (page 353) or the 28 cm high explosive rocket (page 354).

Either model is adjustable for elevation. Firing is accomplished by the hand electric firing system provided for the crates themselves. Maximum ranges for these projectors are identical: 2,106 yards for the 28 cm Wurfkörper Spr. and 2,406 yards for the 32 cm Wurfkörper M. Fl. 50.

German: p. 349 (May 1, 1945)

28/32 cm Nebelwerfer 41: Rocket Projector

28/32 cm Nebelwerfer 41: Rocket Projector This rocket projector fires the 28 cm high explosive rocket (page 354) and the 32 cm incendiary rocket (page 353). Ranges are given below.

This device, which functionally does not differ from the 15 cm and 21 cm Nebelwerfers, consists of six projectors grouped in two tiers of three each, mounted on a two-wheel trailer. The cages are constructed of round steel bars shaped to the outside contours of the 32 cm rocket. Detachable liners for the forward end of the projectors permit the use of 28 cm rockets. The portion of the projector holding the propelling chamber remains the same for both rounds.

The firing mechanism is electric. Traverse (approximately 30°) and elevation (from 0 to 45°) are bymeans of cranks.

The piece is fired from its mounting and is held in position by two jacks in front and a small spadelike arrangement in the rear.

The equipment weighs approximately 2,460 lbs.

German: p. 349 (May 1, 1945)

15 cm Panzerwerfer 42 (Sd. Kfz. N. W. 41): Self-Propelled Rocket Projector


The chassis of this self-propelled rocket projector follows the half-track design but differs materially from the standard German half-track series of prime movers.

A standard commercial chassis manufactured by Opel (Chevrolet) has been modified to carry a spacious armored body of welded plates. The hull thus formed provides a firm and stable firing platform, and permits of easy mass production. The armor is intended only for protection against small arms fire of .30 caliber. The rear wheels and springs of the original truck chassis have been displaced by a track assembly, prefabricated and then bolted to the original frame. The original rear end differential has been retained but the drive shaft has been shortened and the asembly moved forward to mount the drive sprockets. The hydraulic brake system is retained only for the front wheels. A separate cable for each sprocket brake is connected to two hand levers mounted to the right of the driver’s seat. Normal steering is assisted by the sprocket brake when necessary.

The rocket projector consists of ten tubes mounted in two layers of five each. Provision is made for a simple optical sight, and for hand wheels for a maximum of 80° elevation and a maximum traverse of 290°. The projectiles are the same as those fired from the 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 and can be electrically fired, singly or ripple, by means of a squib placed in each round. They are loaded with high explosive, smoke, and chemical warfare ammunition.

Auxiliary weapons include one 7.92 mm machine gun, M. G. 34, and three 9 mm submachine guns. Ammunition stowage is provided for ten extra rockets, 2,000 rounds for the M. G. 34, and 2,000 rounds for the submachine guns.


Weight (net)       13,558 lb.
Trailer load capacity 2,425 lb.
Length (overall) 19 ft. 5 ins.
Width (overall) 7 ft. 2 ins.
Wheel base (approx.) 130 ins.
Height (overall) 8 ft. 6 ins.
Armor 5/32 ins. to 5/16 ins.
Ground clearance (minimum) 10 ins.
Tread centers 5 ft. 2 ins./5 ft. 11½ ins.
Ground contact (tracks) 78 ins.
Track width 10¼ ins.
Track links 82
Fuel tank 22.4 gals.
Fuel consumption Unknown
Fording depth 32 ins.
Speed 25 m.p.h.
Engine Open (Chevrolet) 6 cyl. O.H.V.
Displacement 220 cu. ins.
Horsepower 67 U.S.A.
Ignition Bosch 12 Volt (Coil)
Battery 12 Volt with special heater
Transmission 5 speeds forward, 1 reverse
Steering Normal assisted by differential brake
Crew 3

German: p. 48.1