Tag Archive for 'mine'

S. Mi. 35: Antipersonnel Shrapnel Mine

S. Mi. 35: German WW2 Antipersonnel Shrapnel Mine

The German shrapnel mine is an antipersonnel device which may be operated by direct pressure of about 15 pounds on a push igniter in the head, or by a pull on one or more trip-wires attached to pull-igniters. It may also be fired by electrical methods.

The mine is cylindrical in shape; its height is 5 inches, its diameter is 4 inches, and it weighs approximately 91/2 pounds. It contains an explosive charge of about 8 ounces in some models and 1 pound in others, and approximately 350 steel balls.

An inner cylinder of pressed steel is fitted into the outer jacket, resting on a metal disk which is fixed to the bottom of the outer cover. The charge is contained in a movable cylinder which is screwed to the disk in the bottom of the mine. This cylinder has a central tube and three other parallel tubes. A train of powder in the bottom of the central tube, 2 grams of powder in a recess under the movable cylinder, and the shrapnel, which is contained in the space between the inner jacket and the movable cylinder, complete the assembly.

A cover plate is attached to the mine. This plate has an opening through which the central tube passes, and three other openings in alinement with the three parallel tubes in the powder container.

For firing, an igniter is screwed to the central tube, and a detonator is inserted (sometimes two) in each one of the three other tubes. When the igniter fires, the flame produced flashes down the center tube, setting off the small powder charge which throws the inner cylinder into the air. At the same time, the detonators are ignited, and they in turn set off the main charge. The delay in detonation of this charge permits the casing to rise from 6 to 7 feet into the air before exploding. The shrapnel filling is effective up to a range of about 150 yards to 200 yards.

SPECIFICATIONS

Height (without igniter)         5 ins.
Weight of mine (approximate) 9 1/2 lb.
Weight of filling (approximate) TNT 8 oz. to 1 lb.
Type of filling TNT and PETN
Diameter of mine 4 ins.
Diameter of steel balls .372 in.
Mine wall thickness .050 in.
Weight of 350 steel balls 2 lb., 10.67 oz.
Black powder propellant 0.15 oz.
Explosive carton complete 1 lb., 0.14 oz.
Three types of igniters are used:
     Pressure type
     “Y” adapter w/2 pull igniters
     Electric squib type

German: p. 305

Behelfs-Schützenmine S. 150: Antipersonnel Mine

Behelfs-Schützenmine S. 150: Antipersonnel Mine

The German Behelfs-Schutzenmine S. 150, known to allied troops in the field as the “Pot Mine,” “Picric Pot,” “Mustard Pot,” or “Jerry Mine,” consists of a cylindrical body, a top plate, and a crush igniter.

The body, which is made of pressed steel, contains a 5 1/4 oz. explosive charge of powdered picric acid. A chemical crush-actuated igniter is screwed into the mine by means of a brass or plastic adapter which fits into the top of the body. A synthetic rubber washer is provided between igniter and adapter for waterproofing the mine. The igniter, known as the German Buck Igniter (Chemischer Zünder Buck) consists of a thin metal drum with circumferential grooves to reduce its resistance against vertical pressure. It contains a glass ampule half filled with acid and surrounded by a white powdered flash composition. A small brass detonator (German Nr. 8) is inserted into the detonator pocket.

A moderate pressure on the top of the igniter crushes the metal drum and the glass inside it. The acid pours into the white powder, and a flash resulting from their chemical interaction sets off the detonator which in turn sets off the mine.

SPECIFICATIONS

Height of body         2 ins.
Diameter of body 2 1/2 ins.
Diameter of top plate 3 ins.
Height of igniter 1 1/2 ins.
Diameter of igniter 3/4 in.
Depth of detonator pocket 1 1/2 ins.
Total weight 12 1/2 ozs.
Weight of igniter with adapter 1 oz.
Explosive charge Powered picric acid (5 1/4 oz. approx.)
Color Mustard brown

German: p. 304.7

T. Mi. Pilz 43: Tellermine—Type 4 (Mushroom Head)

T. Mi. Pilz 43: Tellermine Type 4 (Mushroom Head)

This type of mine is composed of fewer parts, is simpler in construction, and more easily assembled than types 1, 2, and 3. It also appears to be less susceptible to sympathetic detonation than the three other types.

It has the usual Tellermine contour, but no cover is provided, necessitating a rubber seal and a pressure spring. The top of the mine is covered by a “mushroom” head pressure plate which screws into the fuze cavity. This head is made of two thin pieces of pressed steel formed into a hollow shell about 7.5 inches in diameter and about 1 inch thick.

The mine has an aperture in its base and one in its sidewall in which either a pull or tension igniter can be used.

The fuze for the mine is very simple in operation, and consists of a shear pin and a spring-loaded firing-pin. When sufficient pressure is exerted on the mushroom head, the shear pin is broken off and the spring-loaded firing-pin plunges into the fuze primer, setting off the detonator. The detonator ignites the penthrite booster which, in turn, sets off the main charge of amatol.

This fuze, which is also used in types 2 and 3 German Tellermine, is dropped into the fuze cavity rather than screwed in as in the case of the type 1 Tellermine.

SPECIFICATIONS

Diameter         11.29 ins.
Weight         18 lb., 1.5 oz.
Bursting charge         Amatol
Bursting charge weight         10 lb., 6.94 oz.

German: p. 304

T. Mi. 35 (Stahl): Tellermine—Type 3 (Steel)

T. Mi. 35 (Stahl): Tellermine—Type 3 (Steel) WW2

The design of the third type of Tellermine does not differ greatly from that of the other two models. It is distinguished by the radial flutings on the upper face (a), which extend to the edge of the surface. On the underside of this pressure plate (a) is a flat strengthening ring (b), spot-welded to the plate.

The ring (c) is secured to the body of the mine (d) by a number of punches. This ring retains the pressure plate in position against the spring (b). The rubber seal (i) between the body of the mine and the pressure plate protects the operating mechanism against moisture and dust.

The mine body and the base (f) are similar in construction to the type 1 T. Mi. 35, type 1 having an adapter to take an additional side igniter, which is located diametrically opposite the handle, and type 3 having an adapter for the base igniter. In the case of type 3, the igniter is screwed down until it rests on the rim of the socket (h), and the screw plug (g) is then not required.

The design for the mine appears to be a compromise between the Tellermine No. 1 and the Tellermine No. 2. In the former the whole of the mine cover forms the pressure plate and the mine is known to be subject to blast effects. The smaller area of the pressure plate in Tellermine No. 2 reduced the susceptibility of the mine to blast but at the same time reduced the available area for operating the mine.

SPECIFICATIONS

Diameter         12.75 ins.
Height 3.21 ins.
Weight 21.50 lb.
Bursting charge 66-34 Amatol
       weight 13.9 lb.
Booster pellets 3 PETN

German: p. 303

T. Mi. 42: Tellermine—Type 2

 T. Mi. 42: Tellermine—Type 2 (WW2 Teller Mine Antitank Mine)

The type 2 Tellermine consists of a flat, circular steel bottom, a steel body having a cylindrical sidewall, and a slightly dome-shaped top with a centrally located well approximately 6.9 inches in diameter. A fluted pressure top is fitted into the well. The silhouette of this mine differs from those of types 1 and 3 principally in that the central pressure top with the fuze well cover extends above the surface of the rest of the body. The mine also contains two other detonator wells, one in the side of the body and one in the bottom.

The igniter body is cylindrical in form and is approximately 1.5 inches long and .81 inch in diameter. The firing-pin head extends above the surface of the body, is hemispherical in shape, and is supported by a heavy shear pin which rests on the upper surface of the body. The lower end has a threaded extension over which a thin metal cap containing a paper disk is screwed. This cap is used as a protection for the primer and, with the paper disk removed, as a means for holding the detonator against the igniter prior to assembly in the mine.

A bursting charge of 10.75 pounds of cast TNT is used. Three PETN booster pellets are imbedded in the bursting charge, one around each detonating well.

SPECIFICATIONS

Diameter        12.7 ins.
Height 4.00 ins.
Weight 18.36 lb.
Bursting charge Cast TNT or 50/50 Amatol
Bursting charge weight 10.75 lb.
Booster pellets 3 PETN

German: p. 302

T. Mi. 35: Tellermine—Types 1a & 1b

T. Mi. 35: Tellermine Types 1a & 1b

There are two models of the type 1 Teller Land Mine. Both types, which are painted olive drab, consist of a flat, circular bottom plate, a steel dome-shaped body which contains the bursting charge, an aluminum retaining ring into which a rubber sealing ring is assembled, and a cast aluminum top, also slightly dome-shaped. A formed iron wire handle is attached to the side wall by welded steel straps.

The bursting charge is initiated by action of the pressure igniter which is screwed into the well cup in the top of the mine. This igniter is cylindrical in form, 2.3 inches long, and 1.625 inches in diameter. A heavy compression spring, located inside the well, is held in position by a forward lip on the underside of the top of the mine. Two other well cups, one through the sidewall and one through the bottom plate, are provided for use when auxiliary pull-type igniters are assembled. On the body cover, concentric with a brass setting screw, are stamped two arrows, one pointing to the “Scharf” (armed) marking, and the other to the “Sicher” (safe) marking. A red spot .1 inch in diameter on the head of the setting screw is used to aline the setting mechanism with the index marks.

The only difference between type 1a and type 1b is in the loading of the bursting charge. Type 1a contains a 10.55 pound charge of pressed TNT; type 1b contains an 11.41 pound charge of cast TNT and three large PETN booster pellets imbedded in the bursting charge. Each pellet has a cavity into which a detonator well is assembled.

SPECIFICATIONS

            Type 1a           Type 1b
Diameter 12.75 ins. 12.75 ins.
Height 3.50 ins. 3.25 ins.
Weight 19.25 lb. 21.20 lb.
Bursting charge Pressed TNT Cast TNT
Bursting charge weight 10.55 lb. 11.41 lb.
Booster pellets 3 PETN

German: p. 301

Topf Mine: Antitank Mine

Topf Mine: Antitank Mine

The Topf Mine, a completely non-metallic, waterproof, antitank mine, consists of a circular body filled with a 12 1/2-pound charge of TNT, a primer plug assembly, and an igniter. The top of the mine is flat, with a fixed pressure plate in the center slightly higher than the surface; a 4 1/2-inch circular recess located in the bottom takes the primer plug and igniter assembly. The outer casing is made of a hard pulp-like material covered with pitch. The mine rests on three glass studs; two of the studs secure a pasteboard carrying handle, while the third, which is sometimes larger than the two others, is used as a filler plug.

The primer plug assembly consists of a glass screw cap and a cylindrical wooden booster holder, the top of which has a deep threaded recess to take the Topf Mine Igniter. A subsidiary igniter socket in the glass cap leads to the booster charge, and is threaded to take a standard igniter.

The Topf Mine Igniter, which is made of glass, has no safety device. It comprises a cylindrical glass body 3 mm thick; a solid glass pressure head, hemispherical in shape and two small glass ampules, one of which contains sodium and potassium as a liquid alloy and the other ethyl nitrate. The ampules are held in position by a black celluloid disc. A thin bakelite detonator well is provided.

The mine is activated by a pressure of at least 330 pounds, which forces the pressure plate down onto the igniter head and thereby breaking the two glass ampules. A flash results, setting off the detonator, booster, and main charge. If a standard igniter is used, the mine must be laid upside down.

SPECIFICATIONS

Diameter of mine        12 1/2 ins.
Height of mine 5 1/2 ins.
Weight (complete) 20 lbs.
Weight in crate 29 lbs.
Filling TNT
Weight of filling 12 1/2 lbs.
Firing pressure 330 lbs.
Height of igniter (including cap) 3 1/2 ins.
Diameter of igniter body 1 1/2 ins.
Shear pressure of igniter 132 lbs.
Overall height of primer plug assembly 3.1 ins.
Diameter of primer holder 2 1/2 ins.
Diameter of glass cap 4.6 ins.

German: p. 304.9 (May 1, 1945)

S. Mi. 44 mit S. Mi. Z. 44: Antipersonnel Mine

German S. Mi. 44 mit S. Mi. Z. 44: Antipersonnel Mine

This anti-personnel mine is basically the same, both in construction and operation, as the S. Mi. 35 described on page 305. It consists of an outer casing and an inner cylinder which contains a T.N.T. charge surrounded by small shot. There are three threaded openings in the cover plate: one is used for pouring the charge into the mine; the second, which takes a S. Mi. Z. 44 igniter, opens into a tube containing a 4.5 second delay pellet and a propellant consisting of three grams of fast burning gun powder; the third which is closed by a wooden plug leads into a tube containing a detonator, a flash cap, and a pull igniter. The pull igniter, located at the base of the tube, contains a spring-loaded striker held in place by two steel balls which are prevented from moving by a pin in the base of the igniter. The pin is attached to the base of the outer case by approximately three feet of coiled wire.

The S. Mi. Z. 44 is a percussion igniter differing from the usual percussion type in that it has two small wings which, when forced outward by pressure from above or tension through trip wires from the side, release the spring-loaded striker to fire the cap. A pressure of 21 pounds or a tension of 14 pounds will actuate the igniter.

Operation of the igniter initiates the 4.5-second delay pellet which fires the propellant throwing the mine upwards. When the coiled wire is fully extended (about 2 1/2 feet above ground level) it pulls the pin from the igniter, enabling the retaining balls to move inward and release the striker to fire the flash cap, detonator, and bursting charge.

SPECIFICATIONS

Height        5 1/8 ins.
Height with igniter 8 7/8 ins.
Diameter 4 ins.
Weight 8.8 lb.
Color Camouflage yellow

German: p. 304.8

Glasmine 43 (f): Glass Mine (Antipersonnel)

Glasmine 43 (f): Glass Mine (Antipersonnel)

The mine consists of an outer glass casing, the upper portion of which is 1/4-inch thick and the lower portion 2/5-inch thick. The external diameter at the base is 4 1/2 inches and at the top, 6 inches at the widest part.

A grooved shoulder on the inside of the case, about 2 inches from the bottom, supports the igniter plate. The mine may employ either a Buck chemical igniter or a new mechanized igniter, the Schuko. When the latter is used, the igniter plate consists of a thin sheet metal plate, which has a central hole for the igniter. When the Buck igniter is used, however, an igniter plate having the same diameter and igniter hole but of stronger design is employed. Around the top of the case is a grooved ledge which supports a thin glass shear plate approximately 1/32-inch thick.

A moulded glass pressure plate of 3/4-inch extreme thickness and 4 1/2 inches in diameter rests on the shear plate. There are two parallel grooves on the underside of the pressure plate which are designed to accept a metal safety fork that will bridge the outer edge of the mine and support the pressure plate until such time as the mine is laid. The two prongs are then withdrawn through the two grooves arming the mine. This fork is not supplied with the mine but is improvised by units.

Four raised strips moulded in the bottom of the mine are spaced so as to take a standard 200 gm. charge (Sprengkorper 28). When sufficient pressure (40 lbs.) is applied to the glass pressure plate, the shear plate is broken and crushes the top of the Buck igniter or trips the actuating lever of the Schuko igniter, depending on which is employed.

SPECIFICATIONS

Weight of standard charge        200 gm
External diameter at top        6 ins.
External diameter at base        4.5 ins.
Height to lip of container        4.2 ins.
Thickness of casing (upper)        .25 in.
Thickness of casing (lower)        .4 in.

German: p. 304.6 (March 1, 1945)

Haft-Hohlladung 3 Kg.: Magnetic Hollow Charge Antitank Mine

Haft-Hohlladung 3 Kg.: Magnetic Hollow Charge Antitank Mine

The German magnetic, hollow-charge, antitank mine, designed for use by tank-hunting squads, consists of a main filling of TNT in a pressed metal container of conical shape. The conical container has an elongated apex threaded externally at its upper end to receive a closing cap. The closing cap is fitted with a detonator well, and threaded internally to receive a standard (B.Z.E.) friction igniter which has a 4.5 second delay.

The base of the cone is attached to a plywood framework. Three horseshoe type magnets, sufficiently powerful to cause the mine to adhere to a vertical surface, are fixed to the bottom of the frame. During transit, the magnets are fitted with a keeper. A brass chain terminating in a hook is also attached to the frame.

SPECIFICATIONS

Weight of live charge       7 lbs., 12 1/2 oz.
Weight of explosive (TNT) 1 lb., 15 1/2 oz.
Weight of booster (Pentrite) 3 oz.
Height of charge 10 3/4 ins.
Height of bursting charge container 7 3/4 ins.
Height of magnets 2 3/4 ins.
Height of apex of hollow cone 6 7/16 ins.
Diameter of base of hollow cone 4 3/16 ins.

German: p. 304.5 (March 1, 1945)