Tag Archive for 'antitank'

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T. Mi. 35: Tellermine—Types 1a & 1b

T. Mi. 35: Tellermine Types 1a & 1b

There are two models of the type 1 Teller Land Mine. Both types, which are painted olive drab, consist of a flat, circular bottom plate, a steel dome-shaped body which contains the bursting charge, an aluminum retaining ring into which a rubber sealing ring is assembled, and a cast aluminum top, also slightly dome-shaped. A formed iron wire handle is attached to the side wall by welded steel straps.

The bursting charge is initiated by action of the pressure igniter which is screwed into the well cup in the top of the mine. This igniter is cylindrical in form, 2.3 inches long, and 1.625 inches in diameter. A heavy compression spring, located inside the well, is held in position by a forward lip on the underside of the top of the mine. Two other well cups, one through the sidewall and one through the bottom plate, are provided for use when auxiliary pull-type igniters are assembled. On the body cover, concentric with a brass setting screw, are stamped two arrows, one pointing to the “Scharf” (armed) marking, and the other to the “Sicher” (safe) marking. A red spot .1 inch in diameter on the head of the setting screw is used to aline the setting mechanism with the index marks.

The only difference between type 1a and type 1b is in the loading of the bursting charge. Type 1a contains a 10.55 pound charge of pressed TNT; type 1b contains an 11.41 pound charge of cast TNT and three large PETN booster pellets imbedded in the bursting charge. Each pellet has a cavity into which a detonator well is assembled.


            Type 1a           Type 1b
Diameter 12.75 ins. 12.75 ins.
Height 3.50 ins. 3.25 ins.
Weight 19.25 lb. 21.20 lb.
Bursting charge Pressed TNT Cast TNT
Bursting charge weight 10.55 lb. 11.41 lb.
Booster pellets 3 PETN

German: p. 301

7.5 cm Pak 97/38: Antitank Gun (Ex-French)

7.5 cm Pak 97/38: Antitank Gun (Ex-French)

The 7.5 cm Pak 97/38, introduced by Germany in 1942, consists of the 7.5 cm French Model ’97 equipment which was modified in 1940 as an antitank gun, and the German 5 cm Pak 38 carriage. The built-up tube, to which a Solothurn type perforated muzzle brake is fitted, has four hoops sweated on for additional strength.

The breechblock is the Nordenfeld eccentric screw type commonly used in the French 75 mm tube. The high-pressure, hydropneumatic recoil mechanism contains a floating piston with nitrogen gas in the recuperator cylinder which brings the gun back into battery. The recoil cylinder is of smaller diameter and contains the piston rod which recoils with the tube and forces the recoil oil into the recuperator cylinder where throttling checks the rearward movement of the tube.

The elevating and traversing mechanisms are located on the top carriage; the elevating handwheel is slightly in front of and to the left of the traversing handwheel. There is a single hydropneumatic equilibrator at the right trunnion. The protecting armor consists of two sheets of 4 mm steel plate curved to envelop the front of the weapon. Below the spaced armor is an 8 mm hinged apron. There is also a small shield above the apron that moves with the tube in elevation.

The sighting gear, which is the same as that used with the 5 cm Pak 38, is situated on an arm and bracket which move with the left trunnion. An opening in the shield allows vision for sighting instruments.

The low-slung, light-weight carriage has relatively short split trails of tubular steel. The wheels are of small diameter spokes made of compressed steel and entirely covered with buna rubber tires 4 inches wide. They are independently mounted to absorb traveling shock by free wheeling action. When the trails are spread, however, the free wheel movement is locked by a bracket so the gun will not bounce on firing. A third wheel supports the rear of the trails for transportation.


Caliber         75 mm (2.95 ins.)
Weight (complete) 2,870 lb.
Length of tube & breech ring 8.8 ft.
Length (overall) 15 ft.
Breech mechanism Eccentric screw
Firing mechanism Percussion hammer
Recoil mechanism Hydropneumatic
Rifling 20 lands and grooves; R.H. twist
Muzzle velocity (reported) 2,100 f/s
Elevation 18°
Depression 10°
Traverse 60°
Ammunition H.E.; A.P.-H.E.; Hollow charge
Also some Polish types of ammunition
Penetration 60 mm @ 900 yds., 30°

German: p. 121

7.62 cm Pak 36 (r): Antitank Gun (Ex-Russian)

7.62 cm Pak 36 (r): Antitank Gun (Ex-Russian)

The original 7.62 cm Pak 36, a Russian weapon, was captured by the Nazis and modified to increase the velocity. The built-up tube was rebored to seat a longer cartrige case, and a two-baffled muzzle brake added to cut down recoil energy. The breech mechanism is of the vertical sliding type, and the firing mechanism of the continuous pull type. The breech ring has been bored to seat a safety lock which holds the firing mechanism in a safe or firing position. A firing lever attached to the left side of the cradle enables the gunner to traverse as well as fire the piece. The elevating handwheel is generally situated on the right side of the cradle. Two puller type equilibrators located under the front of the cradle and attached to the rear by chains compensate for muzzle preponderance.

The carriage is of welded steel construction with synthetic filled pneumatic tires and split trails, which can be spread to an angle of 60 ° for firing. The hydropneumatic recoil system consists of two cylinders, one for recoil and the other for counterrecoil. This model is semi-automatic in operation.

The weapon is reported to use the following types of ammunition: A.P.C.; H.E. A sight bracket is attached to the left of the trunnion, and the German range indicator is graduated for the types of ammunition mentioned above.


Caliber         76.2 mm (3 ins.)
Weight (complete) 3,564 lb.
Length of gun (overall) 23 ft., 5 ins.
Length of tube 12 ft., 1 in.
Carriage Steel split trails with rubber tires
Breech mechanism Vertical sliding block
Firing mechanism Continuous pull
Recoil mechanism Hydropneumatic
Rifling 32 lands & grooves; R.H. twist
Elevation 72°
Depression -4°
Traverse 27° right; 30° left

  Range        Thickness of armor in mm
  Yards           30°         Normal
P.B.   4.1 5.2
500   3.7 4.6
1000   3.2 4.1
1500   2.9 3.6
2000   2.5 3.1
2500   2.2 2.8
M.V. 2430 f/s
Wt. of shell 16.7 lb.

German: p. 116

7.62 cm F.K. 39 (r): Antitank Gun (Ex-Russian)

7.62 cm F.K. 39 (r): Antitank Gun (Ex-Russian)

This gun, recently captured in Sicily, has the general simplicity of design characteristic of most Russian weapons. This was formerly a Russian piece, modified by the Germans to use Pak 36 (r) ammunition. The tube which is provided with a jacket is shorter than the Russian 7.62 cm F.K. 36, and is fitted with a double baffled muzzle brake, similar to that used on the 7.5 cm Pak 40. The breechblock is of the vertical falling block type, and appears to be wholly hand operated.

The buffer is located inside the cradle, whereas the recuperator is mounted above the piece. On recoil, the recuperator cylinder moves with the barrel, the piston rod being attached to the upper end of the bracket which is secured to the forward end of the cradle.

Sighting gear consists of a range drum (calibrated for use with Pz. Gr. 40 and Pz. Gr. 39 ammunition) and dial sight carrier mounted on the left trunnion. There appears to be no provision for a telescopic antitank sight.

Traversing and elevating mechanisms are operated by handwheels on the left and right hand sides of the gun.

The weapon is mounted on a crosshead consisting of a short hollow rectangular shaft provided with bearings at either end for the trail heads. The split trails, constructed from rectangular girders, are operated by traversing handles secured to each trail end. Wheels are disk type with pneumatic type tires filled with synthetic.

The shield is a single flat sheet of metal cut away at the lower corners for the wheels. The top is curved upward to the center where there is a sliding center piece over the barrel. A rectangular sighting aperture with sliding cover is cut out on the left hand side in front of the dial sight carrier.


Caliber         76.2 mm
Length (overall with muzzle brake) 11.4 ft.
Length of barrel (including breech ring) 10.4 ft.
Length of barrel 299 cm (9.8 ft.)
Rifling 32 lands and grooves; R.H. twist
Length of rifling 215 cm (7.05 ft.)
Max. range 14,216 yds.
Wt. in action 3,535 lb.

German: p. 115

5 cm Pzgr. patr. 40 Pak: 5 cm Arrowhead Ammunition

5 cm Pzgr. patr. 40 Pak: 5 cm Arrowhead Ammunition

This fixed round of ammunition is fired from the old model of German 5 cm short-barrel tank gun. The projectile has a plastic needlepoint ballistic cap, a mild steel projectile body, a tungsten carbide core, and a tracer. The cartridge case contains a propelling charge of diethylene glycol dinitrate tubular stick powder, and a charge of nitrocellulose granular igniter powder. An electric primer containing a quickmatch and black powder charge is also used.

The center of the projectile body is trimmed down, lightening the round and giving the ammunition an extremely high muzzle velocity. Armor-penetrating qualities are very good, but can be used only for short ranges due to the instability of the projectile in flight. On impact with armor plate, the plastic ballistic cap shatters and the tungsten carbide core is the only part that penetrates.

The projecile is unusual in that the forward bearing surface acts as the rotating band, and the rear bearing surface as the bourrelet. The rear bearing surface is in two parts, due to the crimping groove dividing it.


Weight of complete round         5 lb., 3 oz.
Weight of projectile as fired 1 lb., 15.86 oz.
Weight of tracer composition (kind not known) 0.12 oz.
Weight of primer composition (quickmatch and black powder) 0.07 oz.
Weight of igniting charge (nitrocellulose granular) 0.45 oz.
Weight of propellant 1 lb., 2.69 oz.
Length of complete round (overall) 14.480 ins.
Length of projectile w/tracer cup 5.75 ins.
Length of cartridge case 11.342 ins.
Diameter of bourrelet 1.950 ins.
Diameter of rotating band 2.269 ins.
Diameter of body midway of projectile 1.258 ins.

German: p. 307

3.7 Stielgranate 41: 3.7 cm Stick Grenade

3.7 Stielgranate 41: 3.7 cm Stick Grenade Hollow-Charge Antitank

This deadly device is a hollow charge finned bomb for use on the 37 mm German Pak. It is believed that this type of ammunition was developed for the purpose of making this obsolescent gun more effective for antitank use.

The stick bomb which is made of pressed steel has a steel rod which fits into the bore and a perforated sleeve which fits around the barrel of the gun. The hollow charge is at the rear of the steel cup (or cone) and consists of two blocks of TNT with cyclonite. A nose fuze of the instantaneous percussion type and an instantaneous tail fuze are used. The nose fuze is used for impact against armor and the tail fuze is for graze action. Both fuzes arm on setback. The propelling cartridge consists of a steel case and is charged with tubular stick powder, an igniting charge of granular powder, and a percussion type primer.

Twenty-nine of these grenades were tested at Aberdeen. One was statically detonated against the face of 7-inch homogeneous armor plate. It penetrated completely, leaving a hole 2 1/8 inches wide at the face and 1 1/8 inches at the rear. The other rounds were fired from a German 37 mm A.T. gun for which they were designed. Range was found to be 203 yards at 5° elevation and 857 yards at 25° elevation. Accuracy was hard to determine because of the inexperienced gun crew.


Caliber of rod       37 mm
Weight of grenade as fired18 lb., 12 oz.
Weight of burster5 lb., 5 oz.
Weight of propelling cartridge1 lb., 6 oz.
Overall length of round 29 1/8 ins.
Diameter of projectile body6 1/4 ins.
Types of fuze 1—P. D. Instantaneous
2—B. D. Instantaneous
Average velocity350 f/s
Average pressure18,600 p.s.i.
     5° elevation203 yds.
     25° elevation857 yds.

German: p. 306

4.7 cm Pak (t) (Skoda): Antitank Gun (Ex-Czech)

4.7 cm Pak (t) Skoda: Antitank Gun (Ex-Czech)

The 4.7 cm Skoda semi-automatic, antitank gun is now apparently obsolescent.

The tube, of monobloc construction, is threaded to take a single baffled muzzle brake and flash hider; the rear is screwed on to the breech ring. The gun recoils on vertical slides riveted to the piece. The breechblock is of the vertical sliding wedge type. The piece is cocked automatically when the breechblock is opened, but provision for cocking by hand is also made.

The recoil mechanism, housed in a cylinder above the piece, consists of a spring recuperator and a buffer cylinder containing water and glycerine.

The top carriage which pivots in traverse on the lower carriage consists of a circular steel base housing machined to hold the trunnion seats for the cradle. The traversing mechanism consists of a handwheel, flexible joint, worm and worm wheel. A grip handle acts as a separate clutch for disengaging the free traverse. The elevating mechanism has a handwheel, beveled gears, flexible joints, shaft, worm and worm wheel.

The carriage has split trails of welded steel construction spread to an angle of about 52° for firing support. In traveling position, they are locked to the axle, and the piece which is rotated through an angle of 180° rests over the trail legs. The wooden-spoked wheels are fitted with steel rims and mechanical brakes which are operated by a hand lever.

The shield is rectangular with a double curve on the top and a cut-away portion for the wheels on either side. It is constructed of a thin 5 mm sheet of armor and has a rectangular sighting aperture on the left-hand side.


Caliber         47 mm (1.85 ins.)
Weight (complete) 800 lb. (approx).
Length (overall), (travelling position) 162 ins.
Length of tube 6.25 ft.
Breech mechanism Vertical sliding wedge; semi-auto.
Firing mechanism Inertia
Recoil mechanism Hydro-spring
Rifling 20 lands and grooves; R.H. twist
Muzzle velocity (A.P.) Wt. 3.6 lb.—2540 f/s
Elevation 30°
Depression -4°
Traverse 45° scaled—360° free
Ammunition H.E.; A.P. (Uncapped)

A.P. shot against homogeneous armor
Range Thickness of armor in inches
Yards   30°   Normal
300           2.3         3.0
500   2.2 2.8
700   2.0 2.6
1000   1.8 2.4

German: p. 127

8.8 cm Pak 43/41: Antitank Gun

8.8 cm Pak 43/41: Antitank Gun

The Pak 43, one of Germany’s newer antitank guns, is a more solidly built weapon than the 7.5 cm Pak 40. The gun is mounted on large rubber-tired metal wheels. A sloping double shield, 6 feet, 3 inches in height, is fitted to the carriage for the protection of the gun crew. Split trails, approximately 12 feet long, are also supplied.

A muzzle brake is fitted to the barrel. The semi-automatic breech mechanism of the horizontal sliding block type is operated by a small auxiliary cylinder on the left side of the breechblock.

The buffer and recuperator are contained in one cylinder which is fitted above the barrel; the balancing cylinders are mounted vertically on either side of the carriage.

The sight bracket is marked for 8.8 cm Pak 43/41 and 8.8 cm Pak 43 Sfl. This marking tends to confirm the opinion that the Pak 43 is a modification of, or development from, the 8.8 cm Flak 41, which it resembles superficially. This marking also confirms the information that this gun, with the designation 43/1, is used in the self-propelled piece Pz. Jag. III/IV (the “Hornet”).


Caliber         88 mm (3.46 ins.)
Weight of gun 4.8 tons
Length of piece (including muzzle brake) 21 ft.
Diameter of wheels 4 ft., 6 ins.
Recoil (maximum) 2.46 ft.
Muzzle velocity Not known
Range Not known
Elevation 38°
Depression -5°
Traverse 58°
Ammunition A.P.C.: H.E.; Hollow-charge
Height 6 ft., 3 ins.

German: p. 113

7.92 mm Panzerbuchse 39 (Pz. B. 39): Antitank Rifle

7.92 mm Panzerbuchse 39 (Pz. B. 39): Antitank Rifle

The German antitank rifle, Pz. B 39, 7.92 mm, is a weapon of opportunity which is used by the German Army against vehicles having light and medium armor. It fires a cartridge similar to that used in the Polish Mascerzek antitank rifle. This cartridge also resembles the American .50/.30 which has been under development in this country since 1931.

The projectile has a tungsten carbide core and is known to have a small pellet of a lachrymator as well as a tracer mixture. Penetrating power of the bullet at 300 yards’ range is 3/4 inch at 20°, and 1 inch at normal against face-hardened plate. At 100 yards’ range, penetration is 1 1/4 inches at normal.

The weapon has proved to be a simple and reliable gun. The recoil is comparatively light. The rifle is manually loaded and fired single shot from the shoulder with the aid of a bipod. It is equipped with a circular turbine muzzle brake.

The Germans also have an earlier version of this weapon known as the Pz. B 38 which is 7 pounds heavier, has a self-ejecting action, and is more elaborate than the hand-operated Pz. B 39. It fires the same ammunition as the more recent rifle.

The Pz. B 39 uses ammunition boxes holding 10 rounds each, mounted on brackets on each side of the wood stock. These are not magazines but serve to hold the ammunition so that it can be quickly and easily removed for hand loading.


Caliber         7.92 mm (.312 in.)
Weight 27.25 lb.
Length (with shoulder stock extended) 62.25 ins.
Ammunition 13 mm case necked down to 7.92 mm. Bullet has tungsten carbide core with tracer and lachrymotor mixture.
Sights Rear, fixed with open U notch. Front covered blade.
Capacity Single rounds
Muzzle velocity 3,540 f/s

German: p. 211

3.7 cm Pak: Antitank Gun

3.7 cm Pak: Antitank Gun

The 3.7 cm, formerly the chief German antitank gun, has been largely replaced by the 5 cm (1.97 in.) antitank gun. A stick bomb, 6 1/4 inches in diameter and with an overall length of 29 1/8 inches, has been recently introduced for use with the gun. The bomb, a hollow charge type, has a steel rod which fits into the bore of the piece, and a perforated sleeve which fits around the barrel. Its use is likely restricted to short ranges.

The gun is normally towed on its own wheels by a tractor but may also be carried on a lorry. Weighing 950 lbs., it is a suitable weapon for use by air-borne troops.

The piece consists of an “A” tube, jacket and breech ring combined. The breech block is of the horizontal sliding block type with a hand operated block stop.

The axle incorporates independent suspension which is, however, locked when firing, the freeing and locking being controlled by the opening and closing of the trail legs.

The lower carriage has a pivot housing and bearing face for the top carriage. It also carries the traversing rack, the travelling clamp and the locking gear for the trail legs and houses the axle.

The layer stands on the left side of the weapon and operates the traverse with his right hand by a small handwheel (clockwise to the right, anticlockwise to the left). The arc of traverse is 60°. The arc of 21° elevation and 13° depression is completed by 32 1/2 turns of the handwheel, which the layer operates with his left hand.

A hydraulic buffer and spring recuperator are provided.

The straight tube telescope sights are mounted on an upright bracket carried on the top carriage.

The shield is composed of the gun shield and leg shield, of 3/16″ armor plate. The leg shield folds under the lower carriage when travelling, and folds down to ground level when in action.


Caliber         3.7 cm (1.45 in.)
Weight (firing position) 970 lbs.
Length of tube 65.52 ins. (50 cals.)
Rate of fire 8-10 r.p.m.
Muzzle velocity (A.P. shell) 2,625 f.s.
Range (maximum—horizontal) 600 yds.
Elevation 25°
Traverse 60°
Ammunition A.P.H.E.; H.E.; stick grenade

German: p. 130