Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, October 1, 1944
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Chapter IX: Weapons
Section V: Chemical Warfare
Part I: Protective Equipment
1. GAS MASKS. a. General. All the known models of gas masks used by Japanese military forces are of the air hose and separate canister type. Rubber stoppers are provided to permit sealing of the canister when not in use to protect the contents against moisture. In general the Japanese gas masks afford good protection against the common types of war gases; their facepieces, however, are uncomfortable when fitted to the average occidental face. The American canisters can be fitted to these masks for better protection against hydrocyanic acid (AG) and cyanogen chloride (CC) gas than the Japanese canister gives. The existence of horse gas masks of the damp mask type has been reported.
b. Army gas mask "model 95". It has a khaki stockinette covered facepiece (fig. 258) with molded tissot tube and circular eyepieces with removable threaded rims. The khaki-colored canister is approximately 6 inches high, 5 inches wide and 2 3/4 inches thick. The carrier is a rectangular canvas bag. A rubberized hood is sometimes attached to this mask to protect head and shoulders.
c. Army gas mask "model 99". Similar in appearance to "model 95" (fig. 259), it is fitted with a rubber nosepiece held inside the facepiece by a stud, and has a short canister only about 4 1/2 inches high.
d. Civilian gas mask type 1, model A (improved). This gas mask (fig. 260), although originally designed for civilian use, also is issued to Army personnel. The facepiece is tan colored with molded tissot tube and circular eyepieces with fixed rims. The tan colored canister is approximately 4 3/4 inches high, 5 1/4 inches wide and 2 3/4 inches thick. The carrier is a small rectangular canvas bag with a 1 1/2 inch diameter hole in the bottom.
e. Navy gas mask model 93, No. 2. Gray colored facepiece, with aluminum rimmed eyepieces (fig. 261) and a tissot tube held by two metal studs. The grey canister is approximately 5 1/2 inches high, 6 1/2 inches wide and 3 inches thick. An auxiliary canister, approximately 2 inches high, can be attached to the base of the main canister to give protection against carbon monoxide. A fabric carrier bag is provided for the facepiece only; the canister is carried on the back held in a fabric harness.
f. Navy gas mask model 93 No. 3. The facepiece (fig. 262) is practically identical with that of No. 2. However, the valve housing may be made of brown plastic instead of aluminum. The canister is approximately 4 1/2 inches high, 5 3/4 inches wide and 3 inches thick. The carrier is a canvas bag tapered toward the bottom which is provided with 2 1/2-inch diameter hole. This model may be used with the auxiliary carbon monoxide canister provided for the No. 2 model.
2. GAS MASK ACCESSORIES. The carriers of most Army gas masks are provided with a packet of antifog discs (fig. 263), a container for antifreeze liquid (fig. 264), a hinged metal clamp for closing the air hose, and a cleaning rag. In addition a small cloth bag attached to the carrying straps contains a can of decontaminant powder. The antifog discs are carried in a thin, black, plastic box. These discs are used to cover the eyepieces when the temperature is below the freezing point. The antifreeze liquid container is either a flat square metal flask or a black cylindrical syringe (fig. 265) made of plastic material. The antifreeze liquid is applied to the inlet valve of the gas mask when the temperature is below the freezing point. Navy gas mask carriers contain an antifog compound in a small cylindrical sheet metal container and a cleaning rag.
3. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING. a. Light protective clothing. Two types of light weight impermeable protective clothing designed to be worn over regular clothing exist:
(1) "Cellophane type" light protective clothing. Comprises jacket with fixed hood, trousers, boot covers with rubber half soles, and gloves (fig. 266). The garments are made of rubberized silk with a cellophane interlining.
(2) "Casein type" light protective clothing. The set (fig. 267) consists of trousers, overboots, gloves, and a carrier pouch. All items are made of casein-coated, rubberized silk.
b. Heavy protective clothing. Is made of heavy red brown rubberized fabric and comprises an over-all suit with fixed boots and hood (fig. 269) and a pair of gloves. This suit weighs approximately 21 pounds.
c. Protective cover and leggings for horses. The existence of these items has been definitely established. The cover is made of cotton fabric, rubberized on both sides, and has semispherical, plastic eyepieces. No details are available concerning the leggings.
4. DECONTAMINANTS. a. Individual decontamination kit. This kit (fig. 268) is intended for use by the individual soldier in neutralizing liquid blister gas that may have come in contact with the skin. The kit consists of a fabric carrying pouch, with a tiestring containing a roll of absorbent cotton, and a green metal can (approximately 3 inches by 2 1/4 inches) with a small screw cap lid. The decontaminant in the metal can is a powder containing chloramine-T as the active ingredient. Decontamination is accomplished by mixing the powder with water to form a paste and applying the mixture to the skin. It is effective against both mustard gas (H) and lewisite (L).
b. Bleaching powder pouch. The pouch (fig. 270), measuring approximately 12 inches by 7 inches, is made of rubberized fabric and is provided with a tiestring, carrying strap, and a pocket containing several pieces of cotton gauze. The pouch holds approximately 5 ounces of bleaching powder, presumably for use in the decontamination of articles of individual equipment.
c. Decontaminating agent, No. 1. A cylindrical sheet metal container, 2 1/2 inches high and 2 1/2 inches diameter, with one blue band around the casing (fig. 271) contains approximately 0.33 pounds crystalline potassium permanganate.
d. Decontaminating agent, No. 2. A rectangular sheet metal box, 4 1/2 inches high and 4 3/16 inches square (see fig. 271) with two blue bands around the casing, contains approximately 2.25 pounds of flaked sodium hydroxide.
e. Decontaminating agent, No. 3. A rectangular sheet metal box, 13 1/4 inches high, 7 3/4 inches wide and 5 3/4 inches thick, with three green bands around the casing (see fig. 271) contains approximately 15 pounds of chloride of lime.
f. Decontaminating agent, No. 4. A cylindrical sheet metal can, 2 3/4 inches high, 2 7/16 inches in diameter, with four blue bands around the casing (see fig. 271) contains a spherical glass ampule wrapped in cotton gauze. The ampule holds approximately 1.8 ounces of a yellow liquid consisting of a 20 percent solution of chlorine in carbon tetrachloride.
g. Uses. These decontamination agents are used as follows:
Nos. 1 and 2. For decontamination of tear gases and vomiting gases.
No. 3. For decontamination of blister gases. Probably used to refill the pouch.
No. 4. For decontamination of blister and vomiting gases.
The effectiveness of these agents is not known, but is considered comparable with similar Allied agents.
5. GAS DETECTORS. a. Blister gas detection satchel. The square satchel, 6 inches x 6 inches, with a carrying strap, contains detector papers, a small box of calcium hypochlorite, a box containing 16 glass ampules of detector material, and a supply of small flags for marking contaminated areas. The white detector material contained in the ampules turns red in contact with blister gases.
b. Gas detector kit. The kit (fig. 272) comprises a light metal cylindrical barrel, 10 1/4 inches long and 2 1/2 inches in diameter; a rubber bulb and tubing; and a set of five detector tubes. When testing for war gases the five detector tubes are placed inside the barrel and held in the holes of a rubber stopper provided for this purpose. Air is then drawn through the tubes by means of the rubber bulb. The kit is contained in a wooden carrying case.
c. Gas detector kit (Navy model). The kit (fig. 273) comprises a rubber, bulb-actuated, metal air pump and a set of three detector tubes. Air is drawn through the detector tubes. It is said that the presence of blister gases, choking gases, and carbon monoxide can be determined by color changes of the indicator materials contained in the detector tubes. The kit is carried in a grey metal case.
1. MARKING OF CHEMICAL MUNITIONS. Indications are that the Japanese attention to war gases has been confined largely to the well known blister, tear, vomiting, etc., gases. In addition, agents for the production of screening smokes are manufactured. The Japanese distinguish between ordinary smoke and toxic, or tear, clouds by referring to the latter as "special smoke." The type of agent contained in a chemical munition is usually identified by a color band according to the following scheme:
Chemical projectiles and most chemical aerial bombs are generally grey in color. Filled shells have a red band at the nose, followed by a blue band to indicate special handling because of the chemical filling. According to the best evidence available, the type of war gas filling is indicated by a colored band in accordance with the above scheme. This band is about twice as wide as any other band on the shell. A narrow yellow band is believed to indicate a HE burster change, while a white band indicates that the projectile is constructed of steel.
2. GAS SHELLS AND BOMBS. a. General. The 90-mm mortar and the 81-mm mortar are believed to have chemical munitions, as is a reported 150-mm mortar, but shells containing these fillings have not been captured. Likewise, the 105-mm gun and 150-mm howitzer shells probably have a chemical filling. The following shells and bomb are definitely known to be filled with war gases.
b. 50 kg aerial gas bomb. Over-all length 45 inches, body diameter 7.5 inches. Total weight 110 pounds. Filling 50:50 lewisite mustard mixture. Grey colored with one yellow and one white band between nose and lug and one yellow band between tail and lug.
c. 75-mm blister gas shell. Weight 12.5 pounds. Filling 1.4 pounds 50:50 lewisite mustard mixture. Markings; red band followed by blue band (indicating CW filling) on nose, one white and one wide yellow band on body, which indicates blister gas filling.
d. 75-mm vomiting gas shell. Weight 13.25 pounds. Filling 0.4 pounds diphenylcyanarsine. Markings, red band followed by blue band on nose. Yellow band below burrelet indicating HE filling, then a wide red band indicating vomiting gas and finally a white band indicating a steel shell.
3. FRANGIBLE HYDROCYANIC ACID (AC) GRENADES. See section II, chapter 9, for description.
4. GAS CANDLES. Most Japanese gas and smoke candles of the stationary or hand thrown type are fired by means of a matchhead fuze and scratcher block. All Japanese self projecting gas and smoke candles (figs. 274, 275, 276, and table) are composed of an outer container equipped with a sliding metal spike. Before firing the candle this spike is driven into the ground to maintain the candle at the desired angle. A matchhead fuze at the lower end of the candle is ignited with a scratcher block and sets off the propellant charge which expels the inner container (projectile) carrying the main charge. The main charge is then set off by a delay fuze ignited by the propellant charge.
5. SMOKE GRENADES. a. 50-mm smoke shell for grenade discharger type 89. See section II, chapter 9, for description.
b. Rifle smoke grenade. See section II, chapter 9, for description.
c. Frangible smoke grenade, white. See section II, chapter 9, for description.
6. SMOKE CANDLES.
7. AERIAL INCENDIARY BOMBS. Army type incendiary bombs are painted grey whereas the HE bombs are black. Navy type bombs, both HE and incendiary, are painted grey. Red and silver tail struts designate an incendiary filling.
a. 1 kg smoke incendiary/antipersonnel bomb, Army type. Characteristics are as follows:
Used in conjunction with demolition bombs as a marker. On explosion antipersonnel effect by fragmentation of cast iron body.
b. 32 kilogram incendiary bomb. Characteristics are as follows:
c. 50 kilogram incendiary bomb. Characteristics are as follows:
d. 50 kilogram incendiary bomb, Army type 100. Characteristics are as follows:
This bomb is differentiated from the 50 kg incendiary bomb described in c above by a longer tail cone with a rounded apex.
e. 60 kilogram solid oil bomb, Navy type. Characteristics are as follows:
f. 60 kilogram incendiary thermite bomb, Navy type. Characteristics are as follows:
g. 250 kilogram HE/incendiary bomb. Characteristics are as follows:
8. OTHER INCENDIARIES. a. One-half kilogram incendiary grenade. See section II, chapter 9, for description.
b. Incendiary grenade "Molotov cocktail". See section II, chapter 6 for illustration and complete description.
c. 90-mm mortar projectile. Characteristics are as follows:
d. 50-mm grenade discharger projectile, incendiary. See section II, chapter 9, for description.
e. 75-mm Incendiary Shell, for model 41 (1908) infantry gun.
f. Incendiary stick grenade. See section II, chapter 9, for description.
9. FLAME THROWERS. a. Flame throwers, type 93. The fuel unit comprises 2 fuel tanks and a nitrogen pressure cylinder. Ignition of fuel jet is effected by flash from a blank cartridge, ten of which are loaded in the revolving cylinder located at nozzle end of flame gun (fig. 282). The firing mechanism is actuated by operating handle which controls fuel ejection valve. Characteristics are as follows:
b. Flame thrower, type 100. Very similar to type 93 flame thrower. The fuel units of the two types are identical as are range and duration of flame. The differences are found in the flame guns as follows:
c. Pyrotechnics. See chapter 10.
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