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TM-E 30-480: Handbook on Japanese Military Forces
Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, October 1, 1944
[DISCLAIMER: The following text and illustrations are taken from a WWII U.S. War Department Technical Manual. As with all wartime manuals, the text may be incomplete or inaccurate. No attempt has been made to update or correct the contents of the original technical manual. Any views or opinions expressed do not necessarily represent those of the website.]

Chapter IX: Weapons

Section V: Chemical Warfare

Part I: Protective Equipment

1. GAS MASKS. a. General. All the known models of gas masks used by Japanese military forces are of the air hose and separate canister type. Rubber stoppers are provided to permit sealing of the canister when not in use to protect the contents against moisture. In general the Japanese gas masks afford good protection against the common types of war gases; their facepieces, however, are uncomfortable when fitted to the average occidental face. The American canisters can be fitted to these masks for better protection against hydrocyanic acid (AG) and cyanogen chloride (CC) gas than the Japanese canister gives. The existence of horse gas masks of the damp mask type has been reported.

b. Army gas mask "model 95". It has a khaki stockinette covered facepiece (fig. 258) with molded tissot tube and circular eyepieces with removable threaded rims. The khaki-colored canister is approximately 6 inches high, 5 inches wide and 2 3/4 inches thick. The carrier is a rectangular canvas bag. A rubberized hood is sometimes attached to this mask to protect head and shoulders.

[Figure 258. Army gas mask model 95.]
Figure 258. Army gas mask "model 95".

c. Army gas mask "model 99". Similar in appearance to "model 95" (fig. 259), it is fitted with a rubber nosepiece held inside the facepiece by a stud, and has a short canister only about 4 1/2 inches high.

[Figure 259. Army gas mask model 99.]
Figure 259. Army gas mask "model 99".

d. Civilian gas mask type 1, model A (improved). This gas mask (fig. 260), although originally designed for civilian use, also is issued to Army personnel. The facepiece is tan colored with molded tissot tube and circular eyepieces with fixed rims. The tan colored canister is approximately 4 3/4 inches high, 5 1/4 inches wide and 2 3/4 inches thick. The carrier is a small rectangular canvas bag with a 1 1/2 inch diameter hole in the bottom.

[Figure 260. Civilian gas mask type 1, model A (Improved).]
Figure 260. Civilian gas mask type 1, model A (Improved).

e. Navy gas mask model 93, No. 2. Gray colored facepiece, with aluminum rimmed eyepieces (fig. 261) and a tissot tube held by two metal studs. The grey canister is approximately 5 1/2 inches high, 6 1/2 inches wide and 3 inches thick. An auxiliary canister, approximately 2 inches high, can be attached to the base of the main canister to give protection against carbon monoxide. A fabric carrier bag is provided for the facepiece only; the canister is carried on the back held in a fabric harness.

[Figure 261. Navy gas mask model 93, No. 2.]
Figure 261. Navy gas mask model 93, No. 2.

f. Navy gas mask model 93 No. 3. The facepiece (fig. 262) is practically identical with that of No. 2. However, the valve housing may be made of brown plastic instead of aluminum. The canister is approximately 4 1/2 inches high, 5 3/4 inches wide and 3 inches thick. The carrier is a canvas bag tapered toward the bottom which is provided with 2 1/2-inch diameter hole. This model may be used with the auxiliary carbon monoxide canister provided for the No. 2 model.

[Figure 262. Navy gas mask model 93, No. 3.]
Figure 262. Navy gas mask model 93, No. 3.

2. GAS MASK ACCESSORIES. The carriers of most Army gas masks are provided with a packet of antifog discs (fig. 263), a container for antifreeze liquid (fig. 264), a hinged metal clamp for closing the air hose, and a cleaning rag. In addition a small cloth bag attached to the carrying straps contains a can of decontaminant powder. The antifog discs are carried in a thin, black, plastic box. These discs are used to cover the eyepieces when the temperature is below the freezing point. The antifreeze liquid container is either a flat square metal flask or a black cylindrical syringe (fig. 265) made of plastic material. The antifreeze liquid is applied to the inlet valve of the gas mask when the temperature is below the freezing point. Navy gas mask carriers contain an antifog compound in a small cylindrical sheet metal container and a cleaning rag.

[Figure 263. Package of antifog discs.]
Figure 263. Package of antifog discs.

[Figure 264. Metal flash for antifreeze liquid.]
Figure 264. Metal flash for antifreeze liquid.

[Figure 265. Syringe for antifreeze liquid.]
Figure 265. Syringe for antifreeze liquid.

3. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING. a. Light protective clothing. Two types of light weight impermeable protective clothing designed to be worn over regular clothing exist:

(1) "Cellophane type" light protective clothing. Comprises jacket with fixed hood, trousers, boot covers with rubber half soles, and gloves (fig. 266). The garments are made of rubberized silk with a cellophane interlining.

[Figure 266. Cellophane type light protective clothing.]
Figure 266. "Cellophane type" light protective clothing.

(2) "Casein type" light protective clothing. The set (fig. 267) consists of trousers, overboots, gloves, and a carrier pouch. All items are made of casein-coated, rubberized silk.

[Figure 267. Casein type light protective clothing.]
Figure 267. "Casein type" light protective clothing.

b. Heavy protective clothing. Is made of heavy red brown rubberized fabric and comprises an over-all suit with fixed boots and hood (fig. 269) and a pair of gloves. This suit weighs approximately 21 pounds.

c. Protective cover and leggings for horses. The existence of these items has been definitely established. The cover is made of cotton fabric, rubberized on both sides, and has semispherical, plastic eyepieces. No details are available concerning the leggings.

4. DECONTAMINANTS. a. Individual decontamination kit. This kit (fig. 268) is intended for use by the individual soldier in neutralizing liquid blister gas that may have come in contact with the skin. The kit consists of a fabric carrying pouch, with a tiestring containing a roll of absorbent cotton, and a green metal can (approximately 3 inches by 2 1/4 inches) with a small screw cap lid. The decontaminant in the metal can is a powder containing chloramine-T as the active ingredient. Decontamination is accomplished by mixing the powder with water to form a paste and applying the mixture to the skin. It is effective against both mustard gas (H) and lewisite (L).

[Figure 268. Can of individual decontaminant.]
Figure 268. Can of individual decontaminant.

[Figure 269. Heavy protective clothing.]
Figure 269. Heavy protective clothing.

b. Bleaching powder pouch. The pouch (fig. 270), measuring approximately 12 inches by 7 inches, is made of rubberized fabric and is provided with a tiestring, carrying strap, and a pocket containing several pieces of cotton gauze. The pouch holds approximately 5 ounces of bleaching powder, presumably for use in the decontamination of articles of individual equipment.

[Figure 270. Bleaching powder pouch.]
Figure 270. Bleaching powder pouch.

c. Decontaminating agent, No. 1. A cylindrical sheet metal container, 2 1/2 inches high and 2 1/2 inches diameter, with one blue band around the casing (fig. 271) contains approximately 0.33 pounds crystalline potassium permanganate.

[Figure 271. Decontaminating agents, (1) No. 1, (2) No. 2, (3) No. 3, and (4) No. 4.]
Figure 271. Decontaminating agents, (1) No. 1, (2) No. 2, (3) No. 3, and (4) No. 4.

d. Decontaminating agent, No. 2. A rectangular sheet metal box, 4 1/2 inches high and 4 3/16 inches square (see fig. 271) with two blue bands around the casing, contains approximately 2.25 pounds of flaked sodium hydroxide.

e. Decontaminating agent, No. 3. A rectangular sheet metal box, 13 1/4 inches high, 7 3/4 inches wide and 5 3/4 inches thick, with three green bands around the casing (see fig. 271) contains approximately 15 pounds of chloride of lime.

f. Decontaminating agent, No. 4. A cylindrical sheet metal can, 2 3/4 inches high, 2 7/16 inches in diameter, with four blue bands around the casing (see fig. 271) contains a spherical glass ampule wrapped in cotton gauze. The ampule holds approximately 1.8 ounces of a yellow liquid consisting of a 20 percent solution of chlorine in carbon tetrachloride.

g. Uses. These decontamination agents are used as follows:

Nos. 1 and 2. For decontamination of tear gases and vomiting gases.

No. 3. For decontamination of blister gases. Probably used to refill the pouch.

No. 4. For decontamination of blister and vomiting gases.

The effectiveness of these agents is not known, but is considered comparable with similar Allied agents.

5. GAS DETECTORS. a. Blister gas detection satchel. The square satchel, 6 inches x 6 inches, with a carrying strap, contains detector papers, a small box of calcium hypochlorite, a box containing 16 glass ampules of detector material, and a supply of small flags for marking contaminated areas. The white detector material contained in the ampules turns red in contact with blister gases.

b. Gas detector kit. The kit (fig. 272) comprises a light metal cylindrical barrel, 10 1/4 inches long and 2 1/2 inches in diameter; a rubber bulb and tubing; and a set of five detector tubes. When testing for war gases the five detector tubes are placed inside the barrel and held in the holes of a rubber stopper provided for this purpose. Air is then drawn through the tubes by means of the rubber bulb. The kit is contained in a wooden carrying case.

[Figure 272. Gas detector.]
Figure 272. Gas detector.

c. Gas detector kit (Navy model). The kit (fig. 273) comprises a rubber, bulb-actuated, metal air pump and a set of three detector tubes. Air is drawn through the detector tubes. It is said that the presence of blister gases, choking gases, and carbon monoxide can be determined by color changes of the indicator materials contained in the detector tubes. The kit is carried in a grey metal case.

[Figure 273. Gas detector kit (Navy model).]
Figure 273. Gas detector kit (Navy model).

Part II: Offensive Equipment

1. MARKING OF CHEMICAL MUNITIONS. Indications are that the Japanese attention to war gases has been confined largely to the well known blister, tear, vomiting, etc., gases. In addition, agents for the production of screening smokes are manufactured. The Japanese distinguish between ordinary smoke and toxic, or tear, clouds by referring to the latter as "special smoke." The type of agent contained in a chemical munition is usually identified by a color band according to the following scheme:

        Color of band
Choking gases    Blue.
Tear gases    Green.
Blister gases    Yellow.
Vomiting gases    Red.
Blood and nerve poisons    Brown.
Screening smoked    White.

Chemical projectiles and most chemical aerial bombs are generally grey in color. Filled shells have a red band at the nose, followed by a blue band to indicate special handling because of the chemical filling. According to the best evidence available, the type of war gas filling is indicated by a colored band in accordance with the above scheme. This band is about twice as wide as any other band on the shell. A narrow yellow band is believed to indicate a HE burster change, while a white band indicates that the projectile is constructed of steel.

2. GAS SHELLS AND BOMBS. a. General. The 90-mm mortar and the 81-mm mortar are believed to have chemical munitions, as is a reported 150-mm mortar, but shells containing these fillings have not been captured. Likewise, the 105-mm gun and 150-mm howitzer shells probably have a chemical filling. The following shells and bomb are definitely known to be filled with war gases.

b. 50 kg aerial gas bomb. Over-all length 45 inches, body diameter 7.5 inches. Total weight 110 pounds. Filling 50:50 lewisite mustard mixture. Grey colored with one yellow and one white band between nose and lug and one yellow band between tail and lug.

c. 75-mm blister gas shell. Weight 12.5 pounds. Filling 1.4 pounds 50:50 lewisite mustard mixture. Markings; red band followed by blue band (indicating CW filling) on nose, one white and one wide yellow band on body, which indicates blister gas filling.

d. 75-mm vomiting gas shell. Weight 13.25 pounds. Filling 0.4 pounds diphenylcyanarsine. Markings, red band followed by blue band on nose. Yellow band below burrelet indicating HE filling, then a wide red band indicating vomiting gas and finally a white band indicating a steel shell.

3. FRANGIBLE HYDROCYANIC ACID (AC) GRENADES. See section II, chapter 9, for description.

4. GAS CANDLES. Most Japanese gas and smoke candles of the stationary or hand thrown type are fired by means of a matchhead fuze and scratcher block. All Japanese self projecting gas and smoke candles (figs. 274, 275, 276, and table) are composed of an outer container equipped with a sliding metal spike. Before firing the candle this spike is driven into the ground to maintain the candle at the desired angle. A matchhead fuze at the lower end of the candle is ignited with a scratcher block and sets off the propellant charge which expels the inner container (projectile) carrying the main charge. The main charge is then set off by a delay fuze ignited by the propellant charge.

[Figure 274. Small vomiting gas candle.]
Figure 274. Small vomiting gas candle.

[Figure 275. Medium vomiting gas candle.]
Figure 275. Medium vomiting gas candle.

[Figure 276. Self projecting vomiting gas candle.]
Figure 276. Self projecting vomiting gas candle.

Tear gas candles
 Description  Approximate dimensions (inches) Body color  Markings   Approx- 
 Filling    Notes  
 Length   Diameter 
Tear gas candle 7.2 2.2   Grey   Green band   0.5   CN mixture   Main filling nitrocellulose wafers containing CN.
Small tear gas candle 5.5 2.5   do   do 0.4   do Believed obsolete.
Vomiting gas candles
Light vomiting gas candle. 7.22.2   Grey   Red band 0.6   DC Metal ring handle at bottom.
Heavy vomiting gas candle.9.84.4   Brown  do 4.4   do Metal ring handle at bottom. Under cover 16 taped vent holes. Separate compartments for fuel mixture under smoke charge.
Medium vomiting gas candle.8.84.4   do   do3.3   doMetal ring handle at bottom. Fixed hinged metal prong at side.
Light self projecting vomiting gas candle.7.92.0   do  do1.5  do Projectile has cardboard casing.
Heavy self projecting vomiting gas candle. 8.22.0   do  do2.2
  doProjectile has sheet metal casing and wooden bottom.
Considerable variation has been found in dimensions and weights of the above candles.

5. SMOKE GRENADES. a. 50-mm smoke shell for grenade discharger type 89. See section II, chapter 9, for description.

b. Rifle smoke grenade. See section II, chapter 9, for description.

c. Frangible smoke grenade, white. See section II, chapter 9, for description.


[Figure 277. Type 94 small smoke candle (White label).]
Figure 277. "Type 94" small smoke candle (White label).

[Figure 278. Type 99 self projecting smoke candle.]
Figure 278. "Type 99" self projecting smoke candle.

[Figure 279. Type 94, model B, floating smoke candle.]
Figure 279. Type 94, model B, floating smoke candle.

[Figure 280. 10 kg smoke candle and igniters.]
Figure 280. 10 kg smoke candle and igniters.

[Figure 281. Type 94, smoke candle, white band.]
Figure 281. Type 94, smoke candle, white band.

Designation Approximate dimensions (inches) Body color Markings Approxi-
Smoke mixture Notes
Length Diameter
Type 94 small smoke candle A. 6.9 2.2 Grey White label 2.2 Berger type Metal ring handle at bottom. Probably an early model.
Do 6.9 2.2 Green or brown  do 2.2 do No handle. May be wrapped in paper with printed instructions. Probably a later model.
Type 94 large smoke candle A. 18 6 Grey do 44 do Hinged wooden handle at top, attached to metal band around casing. Small screw cap lid.
Type 94 floating smoke candle B. 31.2 3.1 Grey or brown  White label or white band. 15.4 HC type Metal ring bracket for float around upper part. "10 year pattern" hand grenade time fuze fits opening on top closed by wing screw plug.
1 kilogram smoke candle "Revision 4." 8.3 2.1 Tinplate White labels top and side. *2.2 Berger type Naval smoke candle.
1 kilogram smoke candle "Revision 7" 8.3 2.1 do White labels top and side. *2.2 HC type Naval smoke candle. Igniter removable.
10 kilogram smoke candle 9.5 6 Grey Labels on top and side *22 Berger type Naval smoke candle. Igniter well fitted with wooden plug. Igniters packed separately.
30 kilogram smoke candle 9.5 10.5 do do *64 do Naval smoke candle. Igniter well closed by wooden plug. Igniters are packed separately. The candle may be fitted with a float.
Experimental self-projecting smoke candle 8.2 2.1 Grey or brown  May have white band 1.5 HC type Sometimes wrapped in paper. Projectile has cardboard casing and short igniter tube.
Type 99 self-projecting candle 8.2 2.1 do White Japanese characters on side 2.9 do Projectile has sheet metal casing. Igniter tube extends whole length of projectile. Under bottom cover match head exposed through slot.
*As weight varies considerably, figures shown are merely the conversion of the indicated kilogram weight to pounds.

7. AERIAL INCENDIARY BOMBS. Army type incendiary bombs are painted grey whereas the HE bombs are black. Navy type bombs, both HE and incendiary, are painted grey. Red and silver tail struts designate an incendiary filling.

a. 1 kg smoke incendiary/antipersonnel bomb, Army type. Characteristics are as follows:

Over-all length       10.25 inches.
Body diameter       3 inches.
Color and markings       White rubber nose, black body, white tail cone and fins.
Main charge       Red phosphorus.

Used in conjunction with demolition bombs as a marker. On explosion antipersonnel effect by fragmentation of cast iron body.

b. 32 kilogram incendiary bomb. Characteristics are as follows:

Over-all length       24.4 inches.
Body diameter       5.75 inches.
Total weight (approximately).70 pounds.
Filling Phosphorus filled steel pellets.
Color Grey.
Markings Silver band on nose and silver tail fin tips.

c. 50 kilogram incendiary bomb. Characteristics are as follows:

Over-all length        3 feet 9 inches.
Body diameter 7.75 inches.
Weight (approximately) 101 pounds.
Filling Rubber pellets and phosphorus in carbon disulfide.
Color Grey.
Markings One yellow and one white band.

d. 50 kilogram incendiary bomb, Army type 100. Characteristics are as follows:

Over-all length        3 feet 4 inches.
Body diameter 7 inches.
Filling Rubber pellets and phosphorus in carbon disulfide.
Color and markings Grey body and tail, yellow and white bands just forward of suspension lug.

This bomb is differentiated from the 50 kg incendiary bomb described in c above by a longer tail cone with a rounded apex.

e. 60 kilogram solid oil bomb, Navy type. Characteristics are as follows:

Over-all length       3 feet 6 1/2 inches.
FillingNormal filling mixture of paraffin wax and kerosene but a filling consisting of pellets made of rubber-like incendiary material also exists.
Color and markingsGrey body and tail, red tail struts.

f. 60 kilogram incendiary thermite bomb, Navy type. Characteristics are as follows:

Over-all length        3 feet 4 inches.
Body diameter 8 inches.
Filling Electron containers filled with thermite.
Color and markings. Grey body and tail, red tail struts.

g. 250 kilogram HE/incendiary bomb. Characteristics are as follows:

Over-all length       5 feet 9 inches.
Body diameter12 inches.
Weight (approximately)550 pounds.
FillingHE and about 750 small metal cylinders filled with incendiary substance.
Color and markingsPainted grey with a red band on tail and a silver band on end of nose.

8. OTHER INCENDIARIES. a. One-half kilogram incendiary grenade. See section II, chapter 9, for description.

b. Incendiary grenade "Molotov cocktail". See section II, chapter 6 for illustration and complete description.

c. 90-mm mortar projectile. Characteristics are as follows:

Weight (approximate)        11.5 pounds.
Filling (approximate) 2.2 pounds phosphorus in carbon disulfide and rubber pellets.
Markings Red band followed by blue band on nose, one yellow and one white band on body.

d. 50-mm grenade discharger projectile, incendiary. See section II, chapter 9, for description.

e. 75-mm Incendiary Shell, for model 41 (1908) infantry gun.

Weight (approximate)        14.5 pounds.
Filling (approximate) 22 oz., rubber pellets impregnated with a solution of phosphorus in carbon disulfide.
Markings Blue-grey projectile, red band below fuze.

f. Incendiary stick grenade. See section II, chapter 9, for description.

9. FLAME THROWERS. a. Flame throwers, type 93. The fuel unit comprises 2 fuel tanks and a nitrogen pressure cylinder. Ignition of fuel jet is effected by flash from a blank cartridge, ten of which are loaded in the revolving cylinder located at nozzle end of flame gun (fig. 282). The firing mechanism is actuated by operating handle which controls fuel ejection valve. Characteristics are as follows:

Maximum range       25 to 30 yards.
Duration of continuous discharge10 to 12 seconds.
Fuel capacity3.25 gallons.
Total weight, chargedAbout 55 pounds.

[Figure 282. Flame thrower, type 93.]
Figure 282. Flame thrower, type 93.

b. Flame thrower, type 100. Very similar to type 93 flame thrower. The fuel units of the two types are identical as are range and duration of flame. The differences are found in the flame guns as follows:

          Type 93         Type 100
Over-all length47 1/8 inches35 1/2 inches.
Weight10 pounds8 1/2 pounds.
Nozzle outlet tipFixedRemovable.
Diameter of cartridge0.44 inch0.484 inch.
Chambers of revolving cylinder1010.

c. Pyrotechnics. See chapter 10.

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