◊ Home Page
    ◊ Site Map
    ◊ What's New
    ◊ Search

Support the Site:

1/32nd Me 163 Komet

Meng Model has announced a 1/32nd-scale kit of the famous Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet rocket fighter. Details from Meng include: size of 178mm length and 292mm wingspan, 190 parts on 7 plastic sprues, 23 PE parts on 2 frets, 3 rubber tyres and 2 poly caps, two different weapon systems, MG 151/20 and MK 108, 3 painting and decal schemes, and full interior.

Meng Me 163B Komet Rocket Fighter
 

32 cm Wurfkörper Flamm

Diagram of the 32 cm Wurfkörper Flamm incendiary rocket for the German Nebelwerfer from the German manual D 444/2839: Die Munition des 28/32 cm Nebelwerfers 41, Schweren Wurfrahmens 40 am gep Zgkw, Schweren Wurfgeräts 40, Schweren Wurfgeräts 41, 1943.

32 cm Wurfkörper Flamm Nebelwerfer Rocket WW2
 

28 cm Wurfkörper Spreng

Diagram of the 28 cm Wurfkörper Spreng high-explosive rocket for the German Nebelwerfer from the German manual D 444/2839: Die Munition des 28/32 cm Nebelwerfers 41, Schweren Wurfrahmens 40 am gep Zgkw, Schweren Wurfgeräts 40, Schweren Wurfgeräts 41, 1943.

28 cm Wurfkörper Spreng Nebelwerfer 41 Rocket
 

Bazooka Versus Tank

The history of the bazooka from U.S. Rocket Ordnance: Development and Use in World War II, U.S. Joint Board on Scientific Information Policy, 1946.

Bazooka Versus Tank

Among the now-it-can-be-told weapons of the American rocket family, is the super-bazooka, bigger and better version of the foot-soldier’s famed tank-buster.

By their surrender, the Germans and Japs missed feeling the impact of a rocket which travels at almost twice the speed and carries double the explosive payload of the standard bazooka projectile; which has an effective range of as much as 700 yards, instead of the 200 to 300 yards of the regular bazooka; and which can function safely through a considerably wider temperature range, thus affording greatly increased protection against the dangers of motor explosion and blast. Though the super-bazooka retains the 2.36-inch diameter of the original bazooka, and is fired from the same launcher, it is propelled by a larger motor, and its heavier explosive charge can penetrate thicker armor plate.

Another development of the original bazooka-still secret at the war’s end-is a super-powered rocket of 3.5 inches in diameter with greatly increased power to penetrate armor plate and reinforced concrete.

The super-bazooka was the joint product of Section H, which produced the design for the motor, and Division 8 of NDRC, which developed the far more powerful head. The 3.5-inch rocket was designed by the Army Ordnance Department.

Bazooka Development

To arm United States infantry to fight tanks on more nearly equal terms, the Army Ordnance Department, in early 1941, had under development a rifle grenade, carrying a “shaped charge” of high explosive. A cone-shaped cup hollowed in the front face of the explosive filling focussed the blast energy into a narrow beam of great penetrating power.

These rifle grenades had too much recoil for field use as a shoulder weapon. Recoilless rocket propulsion was suggested, tried, and adopted. Colonel Skinner, then an Ordnance Department major, and Lt. (now Major) E. G. Uhl, with Section H at Indian Head, undertook the development of a suitable rocket motor.

Following unsuccessful attempts to launch these rocket grenades from attachments to the service rifle, it was concluded that a separate launcher would be required.

To protect the gunner from the rocket blast, the launching tube had to be longer than the maximum burning distance of the rocket motor. To be portable and easily aimed from the shoulder, the launcher, and hence the burning distance, had to be short. By the use of a charge of several thin-web tubular grains of solvent extruded powder in a motor about an inch in diameter, the burning distance was made short enough for a 54-inch launcher, soon dubbed “the bazooka.”

Continue reading Bazooka Versus Tank

V-1: The Flying Bomb

“The Flying Bomb” from C.I.C. (Combat Information Center), U.S. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, August 1944.

V-1 The Flying Bomb

the flying bomb

The pilotless airborne bomb which was first used by the Germans on June 13, has been officially designated as the “Flying Bomb”. (Newspapers have referred to it also as “Doodle Bug” and as “Buzz Bomb”.)

This weapon, known to the Germans as V-1, appears to be one answer to Allied air supremacy in the Channel area. While the inaccuracy of the missiles as used to date is such as to make it impossible to assign specific military targets as objectives, approximately 35 percent of the bombs have landed in the London area causing considerable damage to non-military installations.

The bomb, as may be seen from the illustration, is of relatively simple construction and apparently designed for mass production.

From an examination of fragments and parts of unexploded bombs recovered in England, it has been possible to determine the method of operation. The bomb is originally launched from an inclined ramp on the mainland, by means not yet determined, at an initial speed of approximately 270 miles per hour and continues under the drive of the jet propulsion motor which operates as a result of the increased pressure developed on the forward side of the air intake grill by the high speed of the missile.

A clockwork mechanism which precesses the gyro normally under control of the magnetic compass allows the bomb to be put into a turn within three minutes after launching. The maximum duration of the turn is one minute and corresponds to about 40° in azimuth. After being put on course by this method, the missile flies in a straight line under control of the magnetic compass which precesses a gyro controlling a servo motor actuated by air pressure from two high pressure air bottles located in the fuselage. The gyro is further precessed by a barometric capsule which can be preset for any desired altitude up to 10,000 feet. A small two-bladed propeller, 10 centimeters long, mounted on a shaft geared to a veeder counter, registering to 9999, constitutes an air log. By pre-setting the counter, which is turned backwards during flight, the electrical fuse can be armed, the radio transmitter turned off, and the detonators in the tail assembly exploded. The radio transmitter, which appears in approximately one out of every twenty missiles, is provided in order that shore D/F stations may obtain fixes on the bomb for the purpose of correcting errors in flight. A prisoner of war has reported that the fix must be obtained and telephoned to the control central within ten seconds in order to insure sufficient accuracy. The detonators in the tail assembly operate at a pre-determined time prior to the end of the flight, shutting off the fuel supply and causing the elevators to operate and put the plane in a dive. At the same time, two small spoilers of different sizes are projected from the surfaces of the elevators presumably causing the plane to spin in.

Some instances have been reported in which the plane glided in to the target after the motor had stopped instead of diving. Later reports have indicated that some of the bombs circle before going into a dive. The exact reason for this is not known. but it is assumed that it is for the purpose of obtaining a fix as a check on the accuracy of the flight.

Countermeasures to date have consisted of:
     a. Bombing launching sites.
     b. Destruction of missiles by fighter planes.
     c. Destruction of missiles by antiaircraft fire.
     d. Use of barrage balloons.

On one instance a fighter pilot who had run out of ammunition succeeded in crashing a bomb by tipping it over with his wing tips.

A summary of the results of the flying bomb attacks on England (as excerpted from Prime Minister Churchill’s address of July 6th) appears in “German Flying Bombs” in the July 12, 1944 issue of The O.N.I. Weekly.

 

Special Hobby Me 163A with Scheuch-Schlepper

Special Hobby Messerschmitt Me 163A with Scheuch-SchlepperSpecial Hobby has released a 1/72nd Messerschmitt Me 163A with Scheuch-Schlepper tractor.

Three decal options are included: Me 163A V-4 KE + SW at Peenemünde; Me 163A V-7 CD + IL at Peenemünde; Me 163A V-10 CD + IO of JG 400.

 

Bazooka Oversold?

Comments on the bazooka from Report of the New Weapons Board, Office of the Commanding General, Army Service Forces, Washington, D.C., April 1944.

2.36" Rocket and Launchers

a. The feeling existed in both theaters that the 2.36" rocket had been oversold. This feeling was accompanied by question as to the effectiveness and accuracy of the 2.36" HE AT rocket. In view of this, the Board incorporated a 2.36" rocket show into each demonstration. The entire renovation of the original launcher and rocket was explained. The explanation included a description of the new wagon-wheel pulpit trap and its function. To demonstrate the safety of the launcher, a launcher which had had two rocket motors exploded within the wire-wrapped portion was exhibited. Two bazookas were then fired at a tank at an 80-yd. range. Amazement was expressed by many spectators at the accuracy and results which were obtained by inexperienced rocket operators. Each demonstration included the firing of six rounds, and it was the exception when there were less than six hits.

b. Many types of eye and face protection have been improvised by combat troops using the 2.36" rocket launcher. Some enlisted men use motorcycle goggles. Others use a modified gas mask, the bottom of which has been cut away; still others use the gas mask as issued. One officer stated that he had obtained excellent results with the use of a plexiglass shield attached to the end of the launcher. Some enlisted men are using celluloid or plastic face shields. Some shields are made to cover the eyes only, whereas others cover the entire face. It was reported that the frustrum of a cone, which had been placed on some launchers, does not serve its purpose. It is believed that this problem should be solved completely and that an item which will afford ample face protection at all temperatures should be developed and issued without delay.

c. Brigadier General Arthur H. Rogers, of the North African theater, reported that early in the Italian campaign a number of the 2.36" rockets carried by his men failed to function. General Rogers stated that these rockets had been carried in ammunition carriers, which hold eight rockets, four in back and four in front. He said that these rockets had been carried fins up, with the fins exposed, and that undoubtedly they had been dragged through mud and water. It was General Rogers’ opinion that the rockets which failed to function failed because moisture entered the motor, although he was not certain that the electrical connection had not been loosened. It is believed that in view of this report the 2.36" rocket should be given thorough proof tests for resistance against moisture. General Rogers also told the Board of a new way in which he employed the bazookas of his organization during the early part of the Italian campaign. He said that he formed bazooka hunting teams. These teams employed 10 to 12 bazookas in one group and went hunting at night. He said that their operation was most successful and that the ambushing of stationary German combat vehicles in this fashion was relatively simple. He spoke very highly of the 2.36" rocket and launcher.

 

Captured German and Japanese Aircraft

Rare color video of captured German and Japanese aircraft and rockets.


 

Japanese Rockets and Launchers

The following U.S. intelligence report on Japanese spin-stabilized rockets and launchers was published in Enemy on Luzon: An Intelligence Summary:

ARMY 20-CM SPIN STABILIZED ROCKET AND TYPE 4 LAUNCHER:

Several of these projectiles, the first Army rockets recovered, and the Type 4 launcher, were used against our troops in the Manila area and east of Manila. The date of manufacture, late 1944, emphasized the trend toward increased use of rockets by the enemy.

In general appearance the launcher was similar to a large trench mortar. It incorporated traversing mechanism in the bipod and employed standard mortar fire-control devices. The tube, 20.3-cm inside diameter and 75 and 5/8 inches long, was open at both ends and contained a hinged opening for insertion of the rocket. It was fired with a 25-foot lanyard attached to a pull igniter.

Japanese WWII Army 20-cm SS Rocket and Type 4 Launcher

Army 20-cm SS Rocket and Type 4 Launcher

The explosive head was a thin-walled tube containing nose fuze, booster and filling of cast TNT. The motor threaded onto the explosive head and was equipped with six nozzles canted 25 degrees. The propellant was ballistite ignited by a black powder charge located just forward of the igniter, which screwed into the motor base plate. Projectile and motor had a combined weight of approximately 185 pounds.

Japanese WW2 Army 20-cm SS Rocket and Type 4 Launcher (Firing)

Army 20-cm SS Rocket and Type 4 Launcher (Firing)

The rocket was stable in flight, exploded high order, and had an approximate range of 3,200 yards at 800 mils.

Continue reading Japanese Rockets and Launchers